In research, there are two variables which include both the dependent and independent variables. It is very important to identify different variables in research. Before carrying out research, it is usually very important a researcher to make a consideration of the research variables that could affect the outcome of research. A researcher should be able to note both the dependent and independent variable and then determine which variable could affect the results of the research(Brouckaert, Wildiers, & Neven, 2012). A researcher should be able to do all this so that quantifiable results are generated at the end of the research process. Much cannot be achieved in research if the variables are not identified. Identifying these variables gives scientist direction of finding answers to their research questions. Identifying different variables in research helps the researcher to have focus when writing the research introduction section. It is also important to identify different variables because it provides the researcher with focus to the methods section(Alvarez, 2016). It is therefore important for a researcher to identify and measure different variables in order for the research study to be and remain valid. Identifying which variables affect a research study should be the starting point of every researcher because knowing the variables leads to a valid research study and generation of a valid research(Eye, & Clogg, 2007).
Although researchers go ahead to identify the causality of a certain thing in research, it should be known that is impossible to identify the complete cause and effect. Contrarily, all the researchers must strive to identify the cause and effects of a certain phenomenon in research. Cause-and-effect can be identified through the experimental design which contains the study pilots. This should be done by a researcher before embarking into an expensive and complex study. Establishing the cause-and-effects is a way of showing that the effects that are seen having taken place are as a result of the cause.
There are several ways to test cause-and-effect in order to ensure that there is validity. The first way to test cause-and-effect is through temporal precedence whereby one shows that the cause happened before the effect. The second way is through the covariation of the cause and effect whereby, before showing the causal relationship, it is important to show that there is some type of relationship. The other way is through ruling out the possible plausible alternative.
Eye, A., & Clogg, C. (2007). Categorical variables in developmental research (1st ed.). Amsterdam [etc.]: Elsevier.
Alvarez, M. (2016). Dependent and independent variables (1st ed.). [Place of publication not identified]: Rourke Pub Group.
Brouckaert, O., Wildiers, H., & Neven, P. (2012). Different outcome variables yield different results!Annals of Oncology, 24(2), 554-554