Restitution Plan Reflection for Victims
Surveys worldwide have shown consistently that children below age 19 and adults over 65 years are likely to be more victims of crime than any other group of people. Individuals in this group are unjustifiably fearful about crime which has a negative effect on their welfare. Children and elderly abuse can occur in varied forms including emotional abuse, sexual abuse, neglect physical mistreatment or financial exploitation. The focus of this research paper is to discuss the situations that make elderly people and the children to vulnerable to crime. The paper will explain how vulnerabilities on the basis of age contribute to victimization; moreover, the research will provide a reflection on holistic victim reinstitution plan outline.
Key words: crime, victims, victimization, vulnerability, reinstitution
Holistic Victim Restitution Plan Reflection
Situations That Make Children and Elderly To Become More Victims of Crime
Children below 19 years are more vulnerable to victimization in contrast to adults because they are small, weak and usually look up the adults for their survival (Pawlychka, 2010). This group of people does not have the ability to choose whom and where they will live or spend their time. Problems like family abduction and psychological mistreatment are often associated with dependency and are faced by children than adults.
Elderly people above age 65 on the other hand, have three underlying principal areas that make them more likely to become victims of crime. One is financial situations perpetuated by strangers. The fraudulent schemes may comprise of false promises of prizes and fraudulent of home repair (Woolford, 2009). The perpetrators use varied strategies such as isolation of the victim so as to gain their compliance. Second situation is the crime and abuse by family members and caregivers. The abuse includes sexual maltreatment, financial exploitation and neglect. In this situation offenders are usually younger than the elderly victim. Lastly is crime and abuse in institutional settings in particular sexual and emotional abuse. Sometimes victims in institutional care may also experience systematic abuse such as overcrowding and violation of dignity
Factors Contributing to Elderly Vulnerability to Victimization
Health status is a leading factor that contributes to victimization of the elderly. Changes as one gets older reduces one’s ability to carry out daily tasks for survival and maintaining independence (Zernova 2007). The second factor is cognitive inability. Elderly people experience declining information processing coupled with decline in problem-solving skills due to the decreasing memory capacity resulting to poor decision-making and judgment ability. The last factor is the social network. Zernova, (2007) argues that older adults are more vulnerable compared to younger individuals due to the fact that they are less socially integrated and under stress. Usually, isolation of older adults results from retirement or poor health.
Reflection on Holistic Victim Restitution Plan Outline
Worthy of notice in holistic victim reinstitution plan outline is the use of victimization surveys in data gathering and theory formulation. It is interesting to note how surveys yield much data on crime victims. The information from these surveys allows for the execution of the analysis of both the temporal and spatial patterns and trends in examining the types of victimization. Despite the methodological and practical problems of victimization surveys, researchers are able to gather a vast amount of information on victims of crime, this information on victims of crime varied forms and detail. It is through victimization surveys that one understands how criminality and victimization are commonly associated with specific groups or areas (Woolford, 2009). The surveys have confirmed that there is significant relationship between offenders and victims that has previously believed.
The underlying problem of children and elderly abuse may not be properly resolved if the essential needs of the children and the elderly are not met. To solve this, people should create an environment where children and the ageing individuals are recognized as part of the contemporary society and part of life. Moreover, the anti-ageing attitude among the public should be discouraged, and children and the old be allowed to enjoy their right to live in dignity, a life free from abuse and exploitation. Children and elderly should also be allowed to participate fully in various cultural, educational and economic activities.
Pawlychka, C. (2010). Redefining Justice: The Framing of Contemporary Restorative Justice in Film. M.A. Thesis, Department of Sociology. University of Manitoba.
Woolford, A. (2009). The Politics of Restorative Justice: A Critical Introduction. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing
Zernova, M. (2007). Restorative Justice: Ideals and Realities. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.