Select 1 of the following topics and write a thoughtful discussion of the topic

Select 1 of the following topics and write a thoughtful discussion of the topic. Remember to support your comments with relevant information from course resources or other academic resources. Properly cite all information borrowed from other sources in the body of posts and list the sources citations at the end of the post.

2. Chapter 6 focuses on the issue of sexual orientation and heterosexism. The chapter mentions heterosexism as a source of social injustice against the LGBTQI community. Do you agree with the authors’ position on heterosexism?

DB 2

Heterosexism is mentioned as, “the oppression of LGBTQI individuals involving prejudice and discriminatory behavior” (Hays & Erford, 2018, p. 156). Regardless of the definition, heterosexuality originates from and is maintained by stereotypes people have of one another that is typically based on differences from the “norm”. Stereotypes represent the way that individuals think about other humans that are different based on gender, religion, ethnicity, race, culture, and socioeconomic status rather than on accurate information. Fear of the unknown is usually given as the reason that people distrust, are uncomfortable around or do not engage with those who are not like them. The implication that despite our best intentions it is natural for people to shy away from diversity because they are naturally unsure of things that are contradictory to their vision and upbringing. We are not born in the fear of the unknown or the diverse, we learn to be afraid, show prejudice and discriminate resulting in social injustices occurring.

Using the LGBTQI community as an example, they have had multiple challenges and obstacles set before them in relation to what they feel are rights that all people should have. Examples include: the right to marry, access medical information on their loved one during a medical emergency, obtaining jobs, affordable housing, financial/legal rights to property upon the death of their spouse and adoption/child rights (Matthews & Adams, 2009). Hays & Erford (2018), state that internalized heterosexism is a comparison to a heterosexual norm and overriding the belief system that heterosexuals are better than their counterparts, while heterosexual privilege is an unearned advantage given to heterosexual people. This creates an argument that heterosexism is a form of social injustice as it places the LGBTQI on one side and everyone else on the other side. According to Hays & Erford (2018), individuals who engage in heterosexism place a higher value on the societal norms associated with heterosexuality and by doing so devalue the lives of the people in the LGBTQI community. Due to this division, oppression, hatred, social injustice and violence are created resulting in hate related crimes beginning to take place within the community.

In my opinion, it is very limiting when Hays & Erford (2018) state that there are two categories for individuals to be placed under in relation to heterosexism as it seems that you either accept those in the LGBTQI community or you do not. Those who do not accept the LGBTQI community and have issues with their life choices will be labeled as a heterosexist. I do agree with Hays & Erford (2018) that when people live in fear and do not accept each other’s differences then anger, hatred and violence will arise. In addition, when people cannot be open and welcoming to each other than discrimination and prejudice will prevail like those in the LGBTQI community currently face each day. John 13:34 tells us, “A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another” (NKJV). We should also keep 1 Peter 4:19 in mind, “Therefore let those who suffer according to the will of God commit their souls to Him in doing good, as to a faithful Creator” (NKJV).


Hays, D. G., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Matthews, C. R. & Adams, E. M. (2009). Using a social justice approach to prevent the mental health consequences of heterosexism. J Primary Prevent, 30:11-26. DOI:10.1007/s10935-008-0166-4


Chapter 8 focuses on disability, ableism, and ageism. Based on your reading of the chapter, what critical competencies do you believe counselors need to develop in order to work with elderly clients?


Great job on identifying various critical competencies for working with the elderly. We must remember that the issues of our current society affect everyone; this includes fears and anxieties, even among our elderly populations. While many may seek counseling for issues that stereotypically plague an aged population such as dealing with loss of loved ones or friends, issues of morality, feeling overwhelmed or lonely, they too may be experiencing some of the same issues as any other group such as financial stress, domestic issues, substance abuse, etc. According to Hays & Erford (2018), “it is important to consider a “relational perspective” and to view aging and the disability process as a dynamic interaction between cultural norms and socioeconomic status” (Hays & Erford, 2018).

I believe that clinicians should always strive to take a “blank slate” approach when listening to each and every client until the full extent of issues are determined, and advocate for the client and his or her best interest, in every situation. God has given each one of His children the life he or she has according to His will. We as counselors must respect that in all stages of life, each and every one is precious to The Lord, and there is no “limit” to one’s value. Deuteronomy 32:7 reminds us, “Remember the days of old, Consider the years of many generations. Ask your father, and He will show you; Your elders, and they will tell you” (New King James Version).


Hays, D. G., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.


Chapter 5 addresses the issue of gender and sexuality. The issue of how to relate to transgender clients is a popular topic. Based on your readings and research, what recommendations can you offer for how counselors, especially Christian counselors, should counsel transgender clients?



Good post! The first recommendation I would make is that counselors should proceed with caution whenever engaging any client over the topic of sexuality. Not only is this a way to show care to the client, it is also a matter of professional wisdom on the part of the counselor. The American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics included gender identity as a status that is protected from discrimination (Hays & Erford, 2018). Because of this, every counselor should be very cautious when engaging transgender clients.

My next recommendation would be to apply some foundational Biblical wisdom found in book of James. James says that we are to be, “quick to listen and slow to speak” (James 1:19, NKJV).   While this is valuable for every counseling session, I think it is especially relevant when counseling transgender clients.  The reality is that most transgender clients would enter the counseling environment already very hesitant because of the exposure to oppression and sexism.  It is possible that one mistake such as wrongly addressing them as a “he” or “she” could completely shut a transgender client down (Hays & Erford, 2018).  As a result, I would recommend that counselors seek to build trust by asking questions to gain insight and being willing to listen before speaking. 

From a Biblical view, the Christian counselor must be mindful that they are first a servant and minister of Jesus Christ. They have been charged by Christ to be His representative (Matthew 28:19-20, NKJV). Counselors should strive to exhibit compassion and empathy as the client discloses the issues that clients may have (Matthew 18:33, NKJV). A Christian counselor is not to pass judgement on the lifestyle or actions of the client (Matthew 7:1, NKJV). Instead, a Christian counselor should attempt to counsel their clients, dispensing the grace, mercy, and wisdom that comes from God (Ephesians 2:4, NKJV). So, we are to put on the attitude and mindset of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ!


Hays, D. G., & Erford, B. T. (2018). Developing multicultural counseling competence: A systems approach (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Place an Order

Plagiarism Free!

Scroll to Top