SO245 Lessons 4 & 5 Exam

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The current rate of species extinction is conservatively estimated at _______ times greater than the background rate.

  c) 100 to 1,000

Of the four modes of species interaction, trophic interactions are associated with

  d) predation.

Where would you find a cold desert biome?

  d) Antarctica

Which atmospheric layer enables radio transmissions?

  c) Ionosphere

About _______ percent of current carbon dioxide emissions are being absorbed into the planet’s oceans.

  c) 50

When ecologists study the way energy is distributed over a food chain or the rate at which nutrients are recycled, they’re engaged in _______ in an effort to understand how the whole system works.

  c) ecosystem ecology

Which side effect of urban sprawl is correlated to the time spent commuting from the suburbs to urban workplaces?

  d) Increase in air pollution

Ecologists who study the way species interact with each other in a specified area are focused on

  b) communities.

When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, it produces _______ acid.

  c) carbonic

According to the EPA, the second most significant factor in human-caused global warming and climate change is

  a) deforestation.

The foremost emitters of methane are

  b) oil and gas industries.

According to the course, which of these has not been linked to damage caused by UVB radiation?

  b) Melanoma and premature aging

Two students are discussing causes of desertification in semi-arid locales. Allen maintains that overcultivation depletes soil of vital nutrients. Audrey argues that overgrazing strips vegetation and leads to soil erosion and deforestation. Which student is correct?

  b) Both Allen and Audrey are correct.

Where can the largest tropical forest on the planet be found?

  a) Amazon Basin

Where did humans first domesticate horses?

  b) Asian steppes

Which global region produces the most waste per capita?

  c) United States

_______ is/are our planet’s thermostat and the world’s chief greenhouse gas.

  a) Water vapor

Paul Ehrlich updated his early projections because his original ideas underestimated

  c) human resilience.

The discussion in the course regarding the experience of China during Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward from 1959 to 1960 was meant to illustrate that

  a) population growth doesn’t necessarily proceed at a steady rate.

In developed countries, a fertility rate of 2.1 live births per 1000 births per year is called _______ fertility.

  b) replacement

According to the course, all of the following factors are likely to be sources of social problems related to population density except

  b) spirituality.

Ehrlich’s dire projections differed from those of Malthus in that he applied the principle of geometric progression to

  a) vital resources like oil, copper, and top soils.

In the modern world, how many countries are believed to be in Stage 1 of demographic transition?

  d) 0

In _______, death rates have declined markedly even as infant mortality rates continue as the highest in the world.

  c) Afghanistan

Demographically speaking, in the United States the rate of natural increase is currently below

  d) migration.

What is the standard symbol for carrying capacity?

  b) K

Which type of historical information about a population would not be found in an age pyramid?

  a) Ethnicity

Infant mortality is defined as the percentage of infants who die within _______ months after birth in a given population per 1,000 live births per year.

  d) 12

Which stage of transition theory is usually quite brief?

  a) Stage 2

The _______ ratio compares the number of economically productive people within a specific population to the number of people younger than 15 and older than 64.

  a) dependency

Malthus was incorrect on a key assumption. It turns out that as a population’s standard of living increases, birth rates

  d) decrease.

In transition theory, the main factor in the reduction of death rates is

  c) accessibility of pediatric care.

In the four-stage model of transition theory, declining death rates and continuing high birth rates are characteristic of Stage

  b) 2.

In modern times, the greatest threat of famine is associated with

  b) political instability resulting from armed conflict.

Which statement best characterizes the temperate grassland biome?

  c) This biome features perennial grasses as well as flowering plants called forbs.

Which planet is in the so-called “Goldilocks zone”?

  a) Earth

Which of these is a biotic factor in an ecological system?

  d) Decomposers

The ozone layer contains about _______ percent of atmospheric ozone.

  c) 90

According to the course, _______ scientific experts believe there is still time to address environmental problems and change our course toward a sustainable future.

  c) most

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) have largely replaced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in an effort to reduce ozone layer depletion. What is a drawback to this strategy?

  b) HFCs are also greenhouse gases.

Taiga includes the largest contiguous forests on the planet and make up about _______ percent of all of Earth’s forests.

  c) 30

Disruption of the _______ cycle will have an unpredictable impact on humans due to this cycle’s vital role in regulating global climate patterns.

  d) water

The Keeling curve shows that carbon dioxide concentration in Earth’s atmosphere reached _______ ppm in 2013.

  d) 400

Most of our weather takes place in Earth’s

  c) troposphere.

Plankton and phytoplankton represent the base of the oceanic food chain and produce about _______ percent of our planet’s atmospheric oxygen.

  d) 50

Thomas Malthus proposed a list of preventive and positive measures to control population growth. Which of these would Malthus call a positive check?

  d) Being prepared to cope with extreme poverty and malnutrition

Demographers have added a fifth stage to the classic four-stage transition theory. Namely, when birth rates fall below replacement and death rates exceed birth rates, a country can be said to have entered Stage 5. As mentioned in the course, all of these countries are now considered to be at Stage 5 except

  a) Argentina.

_______ is the global area with the highest rate of population growth.

  b) Africa

_______ decimated the population of Europe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

  c) Plague

The proportion of males to females in a given population is referred to as the _______ ratio.

  b) sex

In a growing population, the rate of natural increase equals the birth rate minus the death rate plus net

  a) migration.

Two students are discussing population density. Chu maintains that no direct correlation exists between population density and poverty. Mason claims that population density is normally associated with poverty and political instability. Which student is correct?

  c) Only Chu is correct.

Which statement is true regarding global population growth trends?

  c) According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by the year 2010, the growth rate percentage was just over 1 percent.

Biological demographers have determined that under ideal conditions, the human lifespan could average _______ years.

  d) 120

From the perspective of Marx and Engels, the political and economic theories of
Adam Smith, John Locke, and others are mainly a(n) _______ of the capitalist system.

  b) rationalization

In the decades following World War II, the United States experienced an enormous increase in the birth rate. This is an example of _______ effects, which impact population growth.

  c) period

_______ death rate equals total deaths per year divided by the midyear population. This figure is normally expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.

  d) Crude

A(n) _______ is the natural space inhabited by a particular plant or animal.

  a) habitat

Which of these statements regarding gender difference in the death rate is true?

  b) Males tend to avoid employment in riskier occupations.

__________ is both our planet’s thermostat and the world’s chief greenhouse gas.

  Water vapor

Discussing causes of desertification in semi-arid locales, Allen maintains that overcultivation of soils depletes them of vital nutrients. Audrey argues that stripping away vegetation through overgrazing leads to soil erosion and deforestation. Who is correct?

  Both are correct.

As the Arctic permafrost melts, the proportion of __________ to all the other greenhouse gases is rising. That’s significant since, among all greenhouse gases, that gas is eight times more potent than carbon dioxide.

  methane

Phytoplankton, aside from being the base of the oceanic food chain, produce __________ percent of our planet’s atmospheric oxygen.

  50

Which of these atmospheric layers enables radio transmissions?

  Ionosphere

Which of these global regions produces the highest level of waste per capita?

  United States

Which of these side effects of urban sprawl is mainly related to driving time spent commuting from the “burbs” to urban workplaces?

  Increased air pollution

Extinctions are not rare. Over an extended period of time, based for example on fossil evidence, a certain number of species will become extinct each year. Thus, experts can estimate a background rate of species extinction. Using that estimate, researchers can compare it to the current extinction rate over, for example, the last two decades. What they have found is startling. According to cautious estimates, the current extinction rate is __________ times greater than the background rate.

  100

The __________ harbors the largest tropical forest on the planet.

  Amazon basin

In which of these semi-arid grasslands did people first domesticate horses?

  The Asian steppes

The actual location of some natural space inhabited by particular flora and fauna is called a/an:

  habitat.

__________ experts maintain that there is still time to address environmental problems and change our course toward a sustainable future.

  Most

The foremost emitters of methane, a greenhouse gas, are:

  oil and gas industries.

Ecologists who study the way many species interact with each other in a specified area are focused on:

  communities.

Which of the following is a biotic as opposed to an abiotic factor in an ecological system?

  Decomposers

Which of the following statements characterizes temperate grasslands?

  We find perennial grasses as well as flowering plants called forbs.

When ecologists are examining, for example, the ways that energy is distributed over a food chain or the rate at which nutrients are recycled, they are engaged in __________ in order to understand how the whole system works.

  ecosystem ecology

The standard symbol for carrying capacity is:

  K.

Today, the greatest threat of famine is associated with:

  political instability resulting from armed conflict.

In the context of transition theory, the main factor in the reduction of death rates is:

  accessible pediatric care.

In the context of evaluating Malthus’ theory, it turns out that as the standard of living increases:

  the birthrate decreases.

Our brief discussion of China during Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward in 1959 to 1960 was meant to illustrate the:

  fact that population growth does not necessarily proceed at a steady rate.

Biological demographers have determined that, under ideal conditions, life span can average __________ years.

  120

In the four-stage model of transition theory, where do we find declining death rates and continuing high birth rates?

  Stage 2

Infant mortality is defined as the percentage of infants who die within __________ after birth in a given population per 1,000 live births per year.

  12 months

In the 13th and 14th centuries, Europe’s population was decimated by:

  the Plague.

Which of the new five stages of transition theory are usually quite brief?

  Stage 2

In the United States, demographically speaking, the rate of natural increase is currently below replacement but the population is growing due to:

  net migration.

According to your reading, factors bearing on population dynamics that may be at the root of social problems include all of the following EXCEPT:

  spiritual.

Thomas Malthus proposed a list of preventive and positive measures in order to control population growth. Which of the following would Malthus call a positive check?

  Be prepared to cope with inevitable extreme poverty and malnutrition.

As a demographer, within a specific population I compare the number of economically productive people between the ages of 15 and 64 with the number of people younger than 15 and older than 64 who, in general, rely on the productive people for sustenance. The measure I’m calculating is normally referred to as the:

  dependency ratio.

Paul Ehrlich has had to modify his prognostications due to underestimating human resilience. However, all of the following have drifted toward basic agreement with neo-Malthusian conclusions EXCEPT:

  economist Julian Simon.

An age pyramid provides historical information about a population. That information includes all of the following EXCEPT:

  ethnicity.

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), the main culprit in the depletion of atmospheric ozone, are being replaced with hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), thus greatly reducing ozone layer depletion. What is the only drawback to this strategy?

  HFCs are potent greenhouse gases.

All of the following have been linked to damage caused by UVB radiation EXCEPT:

  melanoma and premature aging.

The ozone layer contains about __________ percent of atmospheric ozone.

  90

As demonstrated by the Keeling curve, carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere was expected to reach __________ ppm by 2010. But, in fact, carbon concentration exceeded that level in 2013 and is still rising.

  400

Disruption of the __________ cycle will lead to unpredictable impacts on human well-being because of this cycle’s vital role in regulating global climate patterns.

  water

The taiga ecoregions make up the largest contiguous forests on the planet and constitute __________ percent of all of Earth’s forests.

  30

When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water it produces __________ acid.

  carbonic

Among the types of desert biomes, where would you find a cold desert?

  Greenland

Most of our weather takes place in the:

  troposphere.

In developed countries, if we find a fertility rate of 2.1 live births per 1000 births per year, we are witnessing __________ fertility.

  replacement

In the United States, in the decades following World War II, birth rates increased enormously. This is an example of __________ effects that may impact population growth.

  period

Females tend to live longer than males. According to your reading, the discrepancy seems to be related to all of the following EXCEPT:

  females face fewer stresses in a modern society.

Regarding global population growth trends, which statement is TRUE?

  According to the U.S. Census Bureau, by the year 2010, the growth rate percentage was just slightly over 1 percent.

The global region or country with the highest population growth rate is:

  Africa.

Today, respecting transition theory, how many countries are considered to be in Stage 1?

  Zero

In a growing population, the rate of natural increase equals the birth rate minus the death rate in addition to net:

  migration.

Marge maintains that there is no direct correlation between population density and poverty. Mason argues that population density is normally associated with poverty and political instability. Who is correct?

  Marge is correct.

When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water, it produces _______ acid.

  c) carbonic

Plankton and phytoplankton represent the base of the oceanic food chain and produce about _______ As the Arctic permafrost melts, it releases _______ into the atmosphere.

  b) methane

Which of these statements regarding gender difference in the death rate is false?

  a) Female children are more likely to die young than males.
As a demographer, you’ll know that the __________ death rate equals the total deaths per year divided by the midyear population, which is normally expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.D. crude The proportion of males to females in a given population is referred to as the __________ ratio.B. sex In which country have death rates declined markedly even as infant mortality rates are the highest in the world?C. Afghanistan



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