SO245 Lessons 6 & 7 Exam

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Civilian mortality during wars was about 15 percent of all casualties during World War I. That rate climbed to 65 percent in World War II. Today, the civilian casualty rate in armed conflict is around _______ percent.

  d) 90

Following World War I, which country refused to sign the Treaty of 
Versailles?

  a) United States

During the Battle of _______ in the Pacific, kamikaze attacks produced very high American casualty rates.

  b) Okinawa

Napoleon set the stage for modern warfare by mastering all of the following, except

  c) assembling the first volunteer army.

The last of Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points proposed the creation of

  b) League of Nations.

During the American Civil War, which technological advance was directly linked to logistics?

  d) The use of railroads for moving troops and supplies

During World War II, _______ made the most progress in developing rocketry and early guided missiles.

  c) Germany

The French wars of religion amounted to a civil war that ended in

  a) a conclusive victory for the Roman Catholic Church.

At the beginning of World War II, the Western Allies’ initial military operations took place in

  a) North Africa.

The age of Western colonialism ended after World War II. The nation that led that trend was

  d) Great Britain.

During World War I, the Triple Alliance consisted of

  c) Britain, France, and Russia.

The von Schlieffen plan was aborted by the

  d) first Battle of the Marne.

The concept of national sovereignty was established by the

  b) Treaty of Westphalia.

Which statement is true concerning the Armenian genocide?

  c) Turkey denies that a genocide occurred.

A day after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, _______ ordered mobilization against Austria-Hungary.

  b) Russia

Anthropologist R. Brian Ferguson offers evidence that war became frequent about _______ years ago.

  b) 6,000

Partisans use strike and retreat, harassment, and sabotage tactics. Partisans can be said to engage in _______ warfare.

  d) asymmetric

According to _______, “Armed conflict kills and maims more children than soldiers.”

  a) Graça Machel

Why did Great Britain declare war on Germany in 1914?

  a) To honor its treaty with Belgium

The country that sustained the largest number of fatalities during World War II was

  d) the Soviet Union.

Colonies established by the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia were aimed at monopolizing the _______ trade.

  b) spice

When was Japan a de facto colony?

  a) Under General Douglas MacArthur from 1945 to 1947

What did Sir Robert Clive do in 1750?

  b) Defeated the French military assault in India

In the French colonies of West Africa, an effort was made to establish a Francophile community, in which people of different colonies embraced French culture. This effort was

  c) successful in that adoption of French culture muted ethnic differences.

Due to factors such as social class, race, and ethnicity, poverty is

  d) found in virtually every country in the world.

Today, all of these countries are considered post-industrial states, except

  c) Brazil.

Which Western nations claimed the greatest square mileage in colonial Africa?

  a) Great Britain, France, Belgium

Which statement is false regarding Portuguese and Spanish colonialism?

  c) The potato was native to Colombia.

Under British rule in India, British-trained native troops were called

  d) sepoys.

In 1957, the first sub-Saharan British colony to declare independence was Ghana, formerly known as

  d) the Gold Coast.

Since 1931, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand are referred to as _______ of the British Commonwealth.

  d) dominions

In America, classical liberalism was abandoned for a time, following the

  d) stock market crash of 1929 and the Great Depression.

Great Britain outlawed the slave trade in

  d) 1807.

At its height, the British Empire occupied about _______ of Earth’s land areas.

  d) one-fourth

A(n) _______ is a set of assumptions taken for granted.

  c) doxa

Between 1600 and 1765, the British East India Company established _______ at Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.

  a) presidencies

In the New World, the era of Western colonialism was initiated by

  b) Spain and Portugal.

Today, Canada’s RCMP is an entirely independent agency and the rough equivalent of America’s

  c) FBI.

Who proposed that “man is wolf to man”?

  c) Sigmund Freud

Regarding _______ colonialism, the highest rates of alcoholism, depression, poverty, and suicide are found among Native Americans.

  c) internal

Which Polish concentration camp combined forced labor and death?

  b) Auschwitz-Birkenau

Today, Viking looters might be thought of as

  c) terrorists.

According to the course, which statement is true regarding the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs?

  a) The Aztecs forced weaker states to pay them tribute.

The largest imperial state in ancient history in geographic terms was established under

  a) Genghis Khan.

In the actuality of war, the means of diplomacy-trade, commerce, and civil discourse-are suspended. Therefore, it can be said that

  b) radical discontinuity exists between peace and war.

During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, covert military aid was provided to the militant mujahidin by the West. As a result, Soviet forces were driven out of that country. This is an example of a(n) _______ war.

  b) proxy

According to Wallerstein, the _______ was the first global hegemon.

  c) Dutch Republic

Following NATO invasions beginning in 2001, several multinational oil companies have made agreements with _______, enabling them to control and profit from a country with the world’s second proven oil reserves.

  a) Iraq

In North America, French immigrants mainly settled in or near

  b) the St. Lawrence River valley.

According to Wallerstein, because Russia’s economy was almost entirely domestic in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, it should be counted among the _______ nations.

  a) external

According to Wallerstein, all of these countries are considered core states, except

  b) China.

Gerhard Lenski acknowledged four stages in technological evolution. In which stage does the development of agriculture allow the population to create complex social orders?

  b) Stage 3

The Nile has two main sources. The Blue Nile flows from the highlands of Ethiopia; the White Nile flows from the region of Lake Victoria in Uganda. The two rivers meet at Khartoum in Sudan. Today, there are serious tensions between the governments of Egypt and Ethiopia regarding the construction of

  b) an Ethiopian dam to produce hydroelectric power.

Under the concept of _______, we can assume that a cause can be identified for every effect.

  d) determinism

Only seldom does the water of the Colorado River eventually reach its delta in the Gulf of

  a) California.

To accomplish a paradigm shift, the heaviest burden must be borne by the

  d) developed nations.

Four major rivers flow from the snowmelt of the Himalayan Mountains. Which river is a threat to local food production for residents of Vietnam?

  c) Mekong

In Leslie White’s formula E = P*T, “T” stands for

  a) the measure of energy efficiency.

As of 2011, which country produced the highest percentage of carbon dioxide emissions?

  d) China

How much of Earth’s freshwater is easily accessed?

  b) 1.0 percent

According to the text, which year has been the hottest on record to date?

  a) 2016

Concerns about the military-industrial complex and its threat to America’s democratic institutions were first introduced to the public by

  a) Dwight Eisenhower.

The belief that anything worth knowing must be derived from data provided by the senses is called

  c) positivism.

According to _______, Stage 3 is marked by an increase in the service sector and is a source of modern social problems.

  a) Toffler

According to the course, which statement is false?

  c) We should create a single global society under the control of a central government.

For Gerhard Lenski, the key to human progress is

  b) information.

Women comprise two-thirds of illiterate people on the planet as well as _______ percent of those living in poverty.

  d) 70

Which technology is often described as “rats in a maze”?

  a) Automated phone services

According to Leslie White, the key to human progress is

  d) harnessing energy.

In defining future shock, Alvin Toffler invented the term

  a) information overload.

According to a NASA report, about _______ percent of climate scientists agree that changes to the climate over the past century can be attributed to human activities.

  a) 97

The premises of scientism cannot be subjected to

  b) falsification.

Carbon atoms have _______ open gaps in their L shell, permitting the formation of highly complex compounds such as proteins and DNA molecules.

  c) 4

One primary argument against the use of nuclear fission for generating energy is the

  c) accumulation of lethal radioactive waste.

The English word “left” is derived from the Old English lyft, which means

  d) worthless.

Which of these Polish death camps combined forced labor and annihilation?

  Auschwitz-Birkenau

Civilian mortality during wars was about 15 percent of all casualties during World War I. That rate climbed to 65 percent in World War II. Today the civilian casualty rate is around __________ percent.

  90

The von Schlieffen plan was aborted:

  at the first Battle of the Marne.

In terms of sheer geographic extent, the largest imperial state in ancient history was established under:

  Genghis Khan.

A day after Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, __________ ordered mobilization against Austria-Hungary.

  Russia

Napoleon set the stage for modern warfare through mastering all of the following EXCEPT:

  assembling the first civilian volunteer army.

In 1914, Great Britain declared war against Germany. What was the reason for this decision?

  Britain had to honor its treaty with Belgium.

Who among the following proposed that “Man is wolf to man”?

  Sigmund Freud

During World War II, which country made the most progress in developing rocketry and the first guided missiles?

  Germany

Regarding __________ colonialism, the highest rates of alcoholism, depression, poverty, and suicide are found among Native Americans.

  internal

According to __________, “Armed conflict kills and maims more children than soldiers.”

  Graça Machel

Concerning the Armenian genocide, which statement is TRUE?

  To this day, Turkey denies any part in the Armenian genocide.

According to your reading, regarding the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs, which statement is TRUE?

  The role of Aztec warriors was forcing weaker states to pay tribute.

During the first day of the Battle of the Somme, of 100,000 British troops who stormed the German defenses, some 60,000 were killed by:

  machine guns.

In the 19th century, as a result of the economic depression in Europe, colonial powers used their colonies as “dumping grounds” for masses of the unemployed. An earlier 18th precedent for this sort of thing occurred when thousands of __________ were shipped to __________.

  British convicts; Australia

Regarding Portuguese and Spanish colonialism, all of the following are
true EXCEPT:

  the potato is native to Colombia.

According to Wallerstein, all of these countries are considered core states EXCEPT:

  China.

According to Wallerstein, which of these core regions was the first global hegemon?

  The Dutch Republic

The poorest country in the Western Hemisphere is:

  Haiti.

Between 1600 and 1765, the British East India Company established __________ at Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.

  presidencies

In what year did Napoleon become the emperor of France?

  1804

Among the Western nations that joined in the 19th century rush to establish colonies in Africa, which nations led the pack in terms of square miles claimed?

  Great Britain, France, and Belgium

According to Wallerstein, during the 17th and 18th centuries, because that country’s economy was all but entirely domestic, Russia was counted among the __________ nations.

  external

In the Rwanda genocide:

  three quarters of the Tutsi people were slaughtered.

Regarding peripheral countries or regions, all of the following are true EXCEPT:

  there is a downward spiral to the bottom as peripheral states lower
wages in order to compete with all other nations.

Colonies established by the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia were aimed at monopolizing the __________ trade.

  spice

In North America, French immigrants mainly settled:

  along the valley of the St. Lawrence River.

In America, classical liberalism was abandoned for a time, following:

  the stock market crash of 1929 and the subsequent Great Depression.

Every __________ person on our planet lives in poverty.

  third

Which two countries were world powers at the end of World War II?

  d) United States and Soviet Union

During the first day of the Battle of the Somme, about 60,000 British troops were killed by

  c) machine guns.

As a result of the economic depression in Europe, colonial powers in the nineteenth century used their colonies as “dumping grounds.” An earlier eighteenth precedent for this occurred when thousands of _______ were shipped to _______.

  d) British convicts; Australia

Every _______ person on Earth lives in poverty.

  a) third

Who was King Leopold’s “man in Africa”?

  d) Henry Morton Stanley

During the American Civil War, which of these technological advances was directly linked to logistics?

  The use of railroads for moving men and supplies

The concept of national sovereignty was established by:

  the Treaty of Westphalia.

More than 50 million people died in World War II. However, the country that sustained the largest number of fatalities, by far, including combatants and noncombatants, was:

  the Soviet Union.

At the outset of World War II, the Western Allies’ initial military operations took place in:

  North Africa.

Partisans use strike and retreat, harassment, and sabotage tactics. Partisans can be said to engage in __________ warfare.

  asymmetric

By the end of World War II, the only two countries that could claim to be world powers were:

  the United States and the Soviet Union.

The age of Western colonialism ended following World War II. The nation that led that trend was:

  Great Britain.

Since 1931, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand are referred to as __________ of the British Commonwealth.

  dominions

In 1750, Sir Robert Clive:

  defeated the French military assault in India.

Wallenstein describes the world system as dynamic and ever changing. Thus, today, all of these countries are considered postindustrial states EXCEPT:

  Brazil.

Following the onset of United States and NATO invasions beginning in 2001, several multinational oil companies have made agreements with __________, enabling them to control and profit from a country with the world’s second proven oil reserves.

  Iraq



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