The Internet of Things

The Internet of Things

Name of Student’

Institution of Affiliation


Human to computer interaction is becoming limited today as a new platform in data transfer using internet of things (IOT) thrives. IOT involves systems that promote less human-to-human and human-to-network interactions in data transfer via the utilization of network. This through creation of interrelated digital, mechanical, and object machine systems. The term “thing” could be a person, an automobile, or even an animal. On the other hand, the convergence of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs), wireless technology and the internet among other platforms to transfer data or relay information is what internet of things entail (In Kocovic et al. 2017).

It uses the “things” to create a convergence that tear down the silo walls that tend to exist between information technology and operational technology. For example, the use of a biochip transponder, inbuilt-sensors, heart monitors, and other man-made objects to facilitate communication is entailed in IOT. However, the existence of wireless technology has enabled IOT to advance (Biswas & Giaffreda, 2014). For example, the use of sensors and Wi-Fi in devices has become a common trend in IOT applications which has connected billions of devices. This makes IOT a giant network of “things” that are connected. IOT architecture determines the complexity or simplicity of IOT solutions.

The architecture can involve direct connection of devices to a network, or via the use of gateway devices that enable communication between two or more objects via cloud services and applications. The IOT technology is evolving with time and it is oriented towards smart objects and their innovative applications. It goes ahead to develop objects with efficient processing capabilities in finding technical and technological solutions to existing problems. Smart applications of IOT range from Televisions, emails, smart phones, and so on; some of these uses internet-free midrange wireless communication (In Kocovic et al. 2017).

For example, the use Wi-Fi, NFC, and RFID among other communication platforms has become an ultimate trend in promoting smart technology to provide efficiency and solve day to day problems. This paper creates a dissertation that analyses the research methods applied in the development of IOT applications and the ways to improve them. Secondly, it looks at IOT architectures and the application of IOT developments in smart environments.

Research Gap

IOT technology is widely admired and many architectural designs are being formulated towards developing efficient IOT applications to solve problems. However, IOT research and development is still at infancy. It needs further research and innovative design approach to create better problem solving and efficient IOT systems. Secondly, the architecture designs for IOT applications and systems lack scrutiny for purposes of creating better IOT solutions that enhance communication interconnections (Biswas & Giaffreda, 2014). This has created a research gap on the study of existing IOT architectures to enable the creation of smart environments by utilizing the underlying technology in IOT.

To achieve this, the strengths and weaknesses of existing research must be analysed to identify the loopholes that exist in IOT research. It will also enable the derivation of future IOT research development and application. There is also the need to make a critical review of IOT and its applications in real life smart environments (Nassour & Assoum, 2016). The need to examine IOT architectures and compare their previous and current applications to future IOT architectural designs will enable more device interconnections via IOT.

Research Questions

Research Objectives

  • How are the current research processes on IOT applications conducted and how have they contributed to improved IOT design and applications
  • What is IOT architecture and what are the requirements, physiology, and anatomy involved in the architectures
  • Which are the existing IOT categories and platforms and what are the different smart environments in which they are applied
  • What speculative novel IOT architecture should be contextualized and applied in smart innovations and applications today
  • What are some of the existing and related research works and projects in IOT application
  • What are the IOT challenges and opportunities today

The advancement of IOT design and implementation is largely dependent on research conducted and the development processes used. This particularly looks into a review of previous and existing architectures that enable IOT development and application. Understanding the related research to IOT development will be a platform to enable larger IOT interconnectedness and architectural designs. This dissertation looks into fulfilling the following objectives;


  • It will conduct an extensive and thorough examination of the state of art research development of IOT by reviewing the existing IOT platforms.
  • Create a high level IOT architecture description in terms of requirements, anatomy, and physiology
  • Thirdly, it will focus on analysing the existing structures and platforms used to create an IOT smart environment and its application in these areas
  • It will develop and create insights of future research and development approaches in IOT
  • It will also outline and analyse different potential use scenarios of IOT in smart environment innovations and applications (Nassour & Assoum, 2016).
  • Biswas, A. R., & Giaffreda, R. (2014). IoT and cloud convergence: Opportunities and challenges. 2014 IEEE World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). doi:10.1109/wf-iot.2014.6803194

    In Kocovic, P., In Behringer, R., In Ramachandran, M., In Mihajlovic, R., & IGI Global. (2017). Emerging trends and applications of the Internet of things.

    Nassour, S., & Assoum, R. (2016). MNOs’ approaches for building IoT strategies. 2016 Sixth International Conference on Digital Information Processing and Communications (ICDIPC). doi:10.1109/icdipc.2016.7470814