A. Imagine that you are a psychology professional working with first-time parents. One parent says, “Should I just let my baby cry so that he does not get spoiled?” Based on the course materials, discuss the importance of the development of a secure attachment in infancy, addressing the following issue:
The failure to develop a secure attachmentaffects the way your child develops mentally, physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially. They may not be able to maintain an emotional balance, they may lack in confidence and not feel good about themselves, they may not enjoy being around others, feel comfortable sharing their feelings others or they won’t seek the support they need.
- How might the failure to develop a secure attachment affect a child later in life?
Adopted babies or those who spend time in hospital neonatal units away from a parent may have early life experiences that leave them feeling stressed, confused, and unsafe. (What is Secure Attachment and Bonding)
The attachment bond is the unique emotional relationship between a baby and his or her primary caretaker. Significant parental behaviors that can help facilitate the development of a healthy and secure attachment in children are when a baby gives a cue or signal, such as a cry, smile, outstretch your arms and respond in a warm, gentle, sensitive way. Nonverbal communication is key to building and maintaining a secure attachment as well including: eye contact, facial expressions, and tone of voice, touch and body language.
- What parental/caregiver behaviors can help facilitate the development of a healthy and secure attachment in children? Try to provide an original suggestion, one that is unique, and different from what your peers have already provided.
B. According to Piaget, the infant is in the sensorimotor stage of development. David is a 9-month-old infant who can crawl and stand up holding onto something. He can purposefully crawl toward a ball to roll it. He can find objects that are hidden, and he knows how to get his mother or father to come to him when he cries.
I do not think David has completed the sensorimotor stage. Given the information above, David has completed the following sub-stages:
- Has David completed the sensorimotor stage? Why, or why not? What behaviors would you expect to see next in David?
Primary Circular Reactions (1-4 months): This sub-stage involves coordinating sensation and new schemas. (Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development)
Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months): During this sub-stage, the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment. (Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development)
Coordination of Reactions (8-12 months): During this sub-stage, the child starts to show clearly intentional actions. The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. Children begin exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behavior of others. The understanding of objects also begins during this time and children begin to recognize certain objects as having specific qualities. (He can purposefully crawl toward a ball to roll it and he can crawl and stand up holding onto something.) (Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development)
Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months): Children begin a period of trial-and-error experimentation during the fifth sub-stage. (He knows how to get his mother or father to come to him when he cries and he can find objects that are hidden)(Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development)
David should soon start to experience the last stage of the Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development which is:
Early Representational Thought (18-24 months): Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world in the final sensorimotor sub-stage. During this time, children begin to move towards understanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions.
What is Secure Attachment and Bonding? Retrieved July 30, 2015 from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/secure-attachment/what-is-secure-attachment-and-bonding.htm
Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive Development? Retrieved July 30, 2015 from