Vroom’s model of expectancy theory
Motivation and enthusiasm among employees is key for the success of an organization. Motivation is the force within individuals that contributes to the level of persistence and direction exercised at work.
According to victor vroom’s expectancy theory individuals choose certain behaviors over others because they expect certain outcomes as a result of exercising the chosen behavior, it is in this thought that Victor Vroom argued out the expectancy theory of motivation which consists of the following elements: expectancy, instrumentality and valence.
Expectancy refers to believing that hard-work will yield desired levels of performance.
Instrumentality is an employee’s perception that the employer or manager will reward good performance.
Valence is value attached by an employee to given rewards for example, a pay rise, promotions and others. The greater the value attached to any of the promised rewards will determine the employee’s performance.
How victor vroom’s model measures motivation
Motivation is characterized by: voluntary behavior, focusses on processes that affect behavior such as energized effort, effort direction and effort persistence. It is also an individual phenomenon. This means that motivation is relative. Different individuals are motivated in different ways. It is therefore necessary to understand employees based on their various needs.
Based on vroom’s theory;
Valence x instrumentality x expectancy = motivation
According to the above formula, when the level of valence, instrumentality or expectancy is low, the level of motivation will be low. When valence, instrumentality or expectancy is moderate the level of motivation will also be low, and when all three are low, then generally the level of motivation among employees will be low.
How the measure of valence can aid staffing issues in an organization
Valence is the value attached to certain rewards by employees. Individuals who prefer not to accomplish certain outcomes than achieving them are less motivated. Therefore employers can find other things that the employees value more in order to increase their levels of motivation.
2. e-learning as a training method
Electronic learning (e-learning) is a mode of learning that is facilitated by the use of computers. Compared to the traditional mode of learning, e-learning is more convenient for use to train employees, this is because information is readily available wherever and whenever. It also saves the employer’s time since the employees can always access information at their own time and can always remind themselves just by a single click. All the employer needs to do is to avail information online by creating a training tab on the organization’s website and enabling an employee login. Thus, e-learning is not the future, it is now (e-Learning Infographics, 2014).
Potential barriers of e-learning readiness
e-learning readiness refers to how prepared an organization is to implement e-learning. To determine how ready an organization is, one will consider the following three factors: availability of resources, education and the economic organization’s environment.
It is therefore true to say that inadequate resources will be a barrier to e-learning readiness, this includes financial resources, and sufficient computer and technological devices that are meant to facilitate this process.
An organization needs to have the content that they desire their employees to learn or the education they need to impart on the employees. Lack of this will also be a barrier to e-learning readiness.
The organization’s environment should be enabling. If employees are not ready to embrace the mode of learning then the organization’s readiness to e-learning is barred and it is necessary for it to prepare the employees in advance before implementing this mode of learning (Schreurs, 2016).
How e-learning has affected success at Ashford University
The enormous availability of information online has made it easy for students to access information by a single click (Street, 2014).
What a trainer can do to prepare learners for e-learning
A trainer needs to avail all the necessary resources such as providing computers and internet access media to prepare the trainees for e-learning. It is also important to create an enabling environment like psychologically preparing employees to move from the traditional mode of learning to the e-learning method. Their attitude in this transition will also be of high importance, it is therefore necessary to ensure that the trainees wholly embrace the e-learning process.
The content which the trainees are supposed to access should be clear and free from cumbersomeness this is important in ensuring that they do not develop any form of resistance during this transition. (Elearnspace.org, 2016)
3. Describe Senge’s five disciplines
Senge’s five disciplines of learning are; systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, building shared visions and team learning.
Systems thinking is where the learner has a bigger picture of a certain matter and does not practice isolative thinking instead incorporates all the other four disciplines of learning to have an inclusive mind in viewing ideas.
Personal mastery, just as artists, have a mastery of their skills or arts, a learner should have good mastery of their own lives.
Mental models require that learners have an open minded way of looking at things. Having a fixed mind on certain things becomes a barrier to processing of new ideas since the learner is used to doing things or viewing things from a single point of view.
Building shared visions
Since individual visions cannot be dictated it is important that a group of individuals or an organization establishes a common goal in which all members of the organization can work towards. This vision has an uplifting power that encourages experimentation and creativity.
Team learning. Members of an organization need to bring their minds together in order to achieve a common goal. (infed.org, 2013)
Characteristics of an organizational climate that supports organizational learning
The organizational structure. A bureaucratic organization could be a barrier to effective learning, long chains of command inhibit prompt decision making in the organization which becomes a demotivator and the employees’ interest for learning is interfered with. A democratic form of management is therefore necessary to encourage learning in the organization. (Leeds.ac.uk, 2016)
Positive interpersonal relationship. When employees can well and freely interact with each other a positive learning environment is created as the employees can exchange ideas among themselves
Organization training systems. The organization should have elaborate and efficient training facilities be it traditional or e-learning mode of training, either should seek to meet its goal in imparting knowledge on the employees.
Personal attitudes towards learning, the organization should create a friendly learning environment so as to encourage employees to adopt positive attitudes.
Relationship between organization climate and Senge’s five disciplines in organizational learning.
Personal attitudes reflects on the individual aspect in learning. This is highlighted in Senge’s first three disciplines; systems thinking, personal mastery and mental models. While the general organizational aspect such as the structure and training systems is similar to Senge’s last two disciplines which are building shared visions and team sharing. These are emphatic on the need for organizations to encourage a unity of command so as to create a common goal and interests among its members.
e-Learning Infographics,. (2014). Why eLearning Is The Most Effective Method Of Training References
e-Learning Infographics,. (2014). Why eLearning Is The Most Effective Method Of Training Employees Infographic – e-Learning Infographics. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from http://elearninginfographics.com/elearning-effective-method-training-employees-infographic/
Elearnspace.org,. (2016). elearnspace. everything elearning.. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/Preparingstudents.htm
infed.org,. (2013). Peter Senge and the learning organization. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from http://infed.org/mobi/peter-senge-and-the-learning-organization/
Leeds.ac.uk,. (2016). Factors of organizational climate influencing learning in companies. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/166479.htm
Matahari, N. (2013). Victor vroom’s expectancy theory. Slideshare.net. Retrieved 24 January 2016, from http://www.slideshare.net/norainzainal/victor-vrooms-expectancy-theory-18298605?next_slideshow=1
Schreurs, J. (2016). Measuring e-learning readiness. Academia.edu. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from https://www.academia.edu/674090/Measuring_e-learning_readiness
Street, C. (2014). Tracking Student Behavior Helps Ensure eLearning Success in Higher Ed – Market Motive Blog. Market Motive Blog. Retrieved 25 January 2016, from http://www.marketmotive.com/blog/market-motive-team/tracking-student-behavior-helps-ensure-elearning-success-higher-ed