An ecosystem is usually accepted to be a system that is interacting of biota and it is associated by the physical environment. The ecologists usually tend to think of those systems as identifiable at various different scales with the boundaries being selected to highlight the internal and the external interactions. In this sense, the aquatic ecosystem might be identified by dominance of the water in the internal structure and the functions of the area. Such the systems intuitively include the streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, estuaries and oceans. Most of the ecologists and environmental regulators also include the vegetated wetlands as members of the aquatic ecosystems and many think of the groundwater aquifer systems as the potential members of the set.

An ecosystem consists of all living and non-living things in the specific natural setting. The plants, animals, insects, microorganisms, rocks, soil, water and the sunlight are the major components of many of the ecosystems. All the types of the ecosystems fall into one of the two categories: the terrestrial or aquatic. The terrestrial ecosystems are usually land-based, while the aquatic are usually water-based. “Biome” may also be used to describe the terrestrial ecosystems which usually extend across the large geographic area, such as the tundra. Keep in mind, however, that within any ecosystem, the specific features usually vary widely for instance, an oceanic ecosystem in Caribbean Sea will contain the vastly different species than the oceanic ecosystem in the Gulf of Alaska.

Forest ecosystems are usually classified according to the climate type as the tropical, temperate or the boreal. In tropics, the rainforest ecosystems usually contain more diverse flora and the fauna than the ecosystems in any other regions on the earth. In warm, moisture-laden environments, the trees grow tall and the foliage is lush and dense, with the species inhabiting forest floor all the way up to the canopy. In the temperate zones, the forest ecosystems may be deciduous, coniferous or oftentimes a mixture of the both, in which some of the trees usually shed their leaves, while others usually remain evergreen year-round. In far north, just the south of the Arctic, boreal forests that are also known as the taiga, feature that is abundant in the coniferous trees.

In the tropical rain forest it provides food and shelter to a number of animals that comprise of the birds like cuckoo bird parrot, swallows humming bird eagles mammals like the monkeys, tiger and foxes. In the tropical deciduous forest contain animals like deer and elephants and leopard bitrds.Coniferous forests consists of the rich and varied mammals like the deer, musk and rat, insectivorous birds like grouse, jay cross bill. The animals usually play a very important role in the forest ecosystem which include pollination where are range of animals are used for pollinating the plants this include the beetles and the bees. They also assist in seed dispersal and decomposition, mineral recycling and soil improvement.

The other type of ecosystem is the grassland ecosystem. The different types of the grassland ecosystems can be found in the prairies, savannas and the steppes. Grassland ecosystems are typically found in the tropical or temperate regions, although they might exist in the colder areas as well, as is the case with well-known Siberian steppe. The grasslands share common climactic characteristic of the semi-aridity. The trees are sparse or they are nonexistent, but the flowers may be interspersed with grasses. The grasslands provide ideal environment for grazing of the animals. The type of response that can be found in many of the dense and highly productive aquatic communities, such as sea grass beds (Batuik et al., 2000).Example of the animals in large grasslands are elephants, bison and black rhinoceros that is becoming extinct. The grassland birds comprise of the red tailed hawk, American kestrel and short eared owl. The predators in this grassland comprise of the wolves, coyotes and swift foxes. This usually plays a role in the food chain.

The other type of ecosystem is the fresh water ecosystem. The freshwater ecosystems can be found in the streams, rivers, springs, ponds, lakes, bogs and freshwater swamps. They are usually subdivided into the two classes; those in which water is nearly the stationary, such as the ponds and those in which water flows, such as creeks. The freshwater ecosystems are home to more than just the fish; algae, plankton, insects, amphibians and underwater plants also inhabit them. This usually makes the food chain of the water system complete.

The ecosystem usually has got different species of animals and plants that make different ecosystems to be complete. Different ecosystems are very vital in the different regions which are of great importance to complete the ecosystem.


Batuik, R.A., P. Bergstrom, M. Kemp, E. Koch, L. Murray, J.C. Stevenson, R. Bartleson, V. Carter, N.B. Rybicki, J.M. Landwehr, C. Gallegos, L. Karrh, M. Naylor, D. Wilcox, K.A. Moore, and S. Ailstock, (2000). Chesapeake Bay Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Water Quality and Habitat-Based Requirements and Restoration Targets; A second technical synthesis. Annapolis, Md.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chesapeake Bay Program.

Chavas, J, (2000). Ecosystem valuation under uncertainty and irreversibility; Ecosystems.

Custodio, E, (2002). Aquifer over-exploitation; what does it mean? Hydrogeology Journal

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