Final Project Introduction, Literature Review, and Methods Section

Final Project: Introduction, Literature Review, and Methods Section


Argosy University


The purpose of this final research text is to provide clarity on whether individuals with poor self-esteem or other mental health disorders, report more influence from mass media than people who have a strong self-esteem or other mental health disorders. Research will provide methods that will be implemented to gain more understanding of the cause and effect. In addition, the results from research will be calculated from individuals of a certain gender, age, weight, and personality traits. Explanations of change in any form during the research study will be documented and implemented to possible reasons why mass media may be equally responsible for body image issues just as mental health disorders.


There has been many assumptions that media has a huge influence on ones perception of self hate, love, and acceptance in society. However, I find that although media plays a role in what we consider the right size or look, there are studies that show that many individuals suffer from low self esteem, anxiety, and many other psychological issues during adolescents (McClure, A., Tanski, S., Kingsbury,, J., Gerrard,, M., & Sargent, J. (2010). From a clinical point, hormones play a major factor in ones growth along side of the type of influences and parenting style as a child develops. Therefore with this knowledge is it safe to say that media is the main culprit in ones perception of their bodily image?

I find that what we install in one’s mind can clearly give them a since of what they may or may not become. This is especially important if the influence in one’s life matter a great deal. Research will explain in depth of why media may or may not be fully responsible for a beings perception of what a perfect body is and why the influence is such a major placeholder in one’s views. As media outlets demonstrate what is considered appealing or not appealing, this in turn creates more problems with body image. Media indeed creates unrealistic goals to live in what most would call unrealistic society, equally the same as mental illness contributes.

In deed this has been an ongoing argument that may continue on as time progress, but it can be hard to ignore the fact that our society is being infected by what image is displayed to be the best image. We are growing up in an age where we’re constantly bombarded with images of ‘attractiveness’ in the media. Most should be concerned of this terrible vice that is destroying our society.

Literature Review

Media has been around since the earlier years and has become more advanced as time progress.

In a study conducted by some of the most remarkable individuals, it was suggested that the

impact of Facebook on young women body image needs to be of concern (Fardouly, J., Diedrichs, P., Vartanian, L., & Halliwell, E. (n.d.). Mass media such as this has definitely played a role in self identity with most of the population, but more so affecting the women on a higher rate all over the world. A study was conducted and consisted of young women being investigated on whether effects differ from an online fashion magazine, than Facebook. The results were astonishing and revealed some truth that these media outlets were the reasons for the self identity issues when it comes to body image.

Other interesting studies proved that not only was social media the culprit of women having issues when it comes to their bodies, but there was room to believe that some of these women struggled with low self esteem and other mental disorders prior. Mental illness and mass communication has the major effect on body image. Studies revealed that men and women are in some form dealing with mental illness when they struggle with body image issues. This also suggest that although these women and men struggle with body image issues that they are also extremely influenced equally with the many avenues of social media. They would consider this to be referred to a mass communication (Padhy,, S., & Khatana, S. (2014).

Therefore, it suggest that those who already struggle with mental illness will be easier to struggle with body image and perhaps be more persuaded that what mass communication shows is what you should resemble in the real world. It’s not a secret that many have become victim’s to low self esteem from what we like to call mass media; however, we must not be so quick to overlook those who struggled with mental illness for most of their lives. The question that needs to be answered is what type of media has the most effect when it comes to body image issues? A study was conducted to give clarity to the answer that researchers had to know. The research study particularly catered to female gender being that it suggests that females are under more influence when being what they call the perfect size. In this case, the biggest influence in media would be the reason of concern for many women having low self esteem and anxiety. This suggest that all media indeed has a major influence on ones perception of the right body, and is clearly sending a picture that this is what one must be like to fit into a society or certain group (Williams, R., & Ricciardelli, L. (2014).

However, although the study focused on different types of media, it was suggested that peers of the individuals and family members influence was just as responsible as major social media sites and televised programming. It is quite clear that each play a role in ones perception, however there is room to suggest that mentally there is reason to believe that these individuals are more easily influenced because of other health issues.



I would like to make sure that I have 12 women who will be divided into groups based on their size and race. It has been suggested that body image issues seem to affect women more so than men. In this case, my subjects would preferably be women who are of different races, because it has been suggested that some races reported being more self conscious about their weight than others. I would like to have 4 African American women, 4 Hispanic women, and 4 Caucasian women. I would like to have two women from each group divided by weight. For example, 2 out of the four women in each race must be petite and the other two plus size. In addition, these women must have had issues with body image and have been treated by a physician.


The design of the study will be an interview design. Therefore, the instruments that will be implemented in this study would include magazines, mirrors, markers, survey forms, and video productions.


In this study, I would give all the women magazines and ask them to cut out the images of women who they desire to look like. The women will also watch video productions of what society calls the perfect woman. After, I will call each woman in privately and ask them a series of questions about their bodies; in addition I will ask them to draw with marker what section of the body they would like to change. After each woman has been privately interviewed, I will have all the women reveal the women they cut out the magazine. This will allow me to understand how many women are on the same page when it comes to a certain body image. After they have done so, I will call each woman in again for a private interview and ask questions related to their choices and early childhood experiences.

Ethical Issues

The ethical issues that could occur in this study would be considered psychological. The experience for patients could be troubling and in some cases hard to deal with. The individuals who may not have looked at body image as others did in a critical way, does not mean after the study that participants will have the same outlook about body image. It is the duty of all required staff to make sure that problematic issues in result from this study, is presented before any of the individuals are able to participate. In addition, it is important to know that psychological issues may be an issue during and after the study. It is also important to know that in some cases, all participants may not be as truthful about their reasoning. This is simply because it can be very difficult for most to open up about most things that are difficult to talk about. I say this because most may not feel comfortable expressing themselves right away. Therefore this is something that should be expected when the research is being conducted. I would encourage all individuals to consent to validity of their entry to participate in this clinical research program.


Fitzgibbon, M., & Stolley, M. (2000). Eating Disorders and Minorities. Retrieved January 27, 2016, from

Grabe, S., Ward, M., & Hyde, J. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 460-476.

Race, Ethnicity, and Culture | National Eating Disorders Association. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2016, from

Result Filters. (n.d.). Retrieved January 27, 2016, from

Williams, R., & Ricciardelli, L. (2014). Social media and body image concerns: Further considerations and broader perspectives. Sex roles, 389-392.

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