U.S. Homeland Security

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Homeland security has become of major importance to the United State because of intended attacks and terrorism to the economy and therefore the government has taken steps in trying to protect its economy. This paper seeks to discuss on the facts measures and levels of homeland security established.

Intellectual property rights and impacts of counterfeit merchandise to US economy

Intellectual property rights are rights to individuals over creation of their minds. Protection of intellectual property rights is very crucial for companies to achieve their objectives and innovations. They protect companies through patent, copyrights, or trademarks to curb counterfeiting and piracy. Infringement of these rights can harm IP intensive industries, consumers and the government.

First, it results to revenue loss; in the past recent years companies in USA have, made great loses because of this erosion of these rights (White, Markowski, Collins, & CW Productions. (2010). these losses are because of dumping of cheap poor commodities by international traders resulting to imperfect competition with local producers. Secondly, it hassled to the involved companies undergoing the costs of IP protection they are not beneficial. Thirdly, it has highly caused damage to the brand name and even reduced market share due to the state of poor quality. Companies have also had poor incentives because of this theft due to the rise and the increasing probability to experience losses.

The consumers harms occur when they purchase counterfeit goods some of which are medicines might upshot to health hazard and risk. The government on the other hand loses tax revenue and stand enforcement costs. It may result from low consumer consumption levels or reduced importation that is an effect from changes in consumer’s tastes. It also leads to loss of job revenue. All these factors have critically affected the economic well being of US economy.

Health and safety concerns posed by counterfeit products

In terms of worldwide population, adults and children are encountering harms from counterfeit goods and to extreme cases even death. In this case, the major cause of these harms particularly result from drugs, alcohol, personal care items, and foods. Counterfeit drugs are substandard in nature and are increasing on a daily bases in production. They have posed increased threats of cancer and diabetes due to poor regulation of the contents used. Injuries and harm from these counterfeit drugs includes death, blindness, severe headache, burns, hospitalization, illnesses, failure to recover and swelling or rashes.

Adverse reactions are mainly observable in case of hard drugs such as bhang, mandrax and tobacco can cause drug related diseases or even increase in social crime, addiction, and physical health consequences. This contributes to global burden of disease and even poor productivity.

Ways in which IP poses an existential threat to national security

IP negatively affects the economic well being of USA right holders through profit loses, brand dilution, enforcement costs and losses the well being of tax and job revenue. These are mainly from counterfeit goods and the application of computer piracy. Counterfeit goods are increasingly altering the supply chain vulnerabilities. Massive increase in technological application fueled substantial use of the internet hence increasing the threat of deception depending on the merchandise offered. Increased violation of the intellectual property rights has a relation to the increasing urge to achieve easy profits.

Most infringing goods production takes place in overseas or even in cross border countries next US China being the major offender in international trade. United States also receives threat from leaking trade secrets that results to trading failure. The threat is massively growing with major examples lying on the shift from the type of infringed goods. In the past, the counterfeit commodities were mainly inclusive of luxurious goods such as watches and handbags. Currently because of development of technology that has high profit returns, the counterfeit goods have now shifted to electronics (Larson, Peters, Arroyo Center., & Rand Corporation, 2001). Currently electronics fetch better profits because massive sale at cheaper prices results to high revenues.

The customers easily believe through the production of appealing goods by the offenders. The other mode is by use of the widespread piracy, which involves the use of internet. It facilitates the offenders who wish to breach the supply chains. Offenders are able to create websites that appear legitimate thus easily convincing consumers into purchasing the counterfeit products. Consumers therefore make irrational choices through which they cannot tell whether the internet is true or not about the product. The internet has also been making counterfeit products, which in the case widely include the movies, music, and software is which are widely available.

Purpose and reasoning behind Executive Order 13,113 and the goals of the working group it formed

The Executive order has its main objective as establishing a working group to deal with the unlawful conduct of using the internet. Its reasoning gets its bases on growing internet piracy where people are able to have intellectual property rights eroded in favor of unfair trade (Larson, Peters, Arroyo Center, & Rand Corporation, 2001). The working group is obligated to under file a report on the extent to which the existing government branches provide sufficient basis for investigation on unlawful conduct involving the internet. Secondly, it should seek the extent to which new technological tools are required for proper investigations and finally the new tools that can empower the society to minimize risks from this unlawful conduct.

Smart borders

Evolution of international trade and security environment signals the need for border protection that calls for smart borders concept. It involves a vision of safer; more standardized and cost effective borders. Due to the increasing global trade congestion along the border, there raises high volume delays, overburdened and sometimes redundant checkpoints. The main objective of the smart border concept is ensuring that there are available adequate and appropriate resources to carry out screening of both goods and people as they transverse through the border. Increase in global trade results to fewer resources available for the screening.

The government clearly needs to improve the level of the level of staffing and border patrol( Payan, 2006). All these issues have put the government into the need of examining better methods, which will enhance security and facilitate efficient movement of people and goods along the border. They are inclusive of making a safer border by making risk based decisions, improve standardization by normalizing the requirements of data, partnering across borders, increase savings on cost by consolidating government functions along the border and innovation along the border which will enable ecosystem and community solutions.

Impacts of Smart Port Security, Safe Port Act, Small Vessel Security Strategy on port security

Smart Port Security Legislation ensures homeland security of assets, wheels partnerships in external trade with individually owned industries whereas saving on cost. The legislation reinforces waterways security through supporting risk based supply chain programs, redirecting the mechanisms of DHS with maritime errands, and input cost minimizing agents (Payan, 2006). The DHS then has the ability to reorganize other countries Trusted Shipper Programs hence deducting redundancies. In addition, it seeks to pick up efficiency and save taxpayer expenses through sharing facilities as well as necessitating CBP to make use of set practices and risk based estimations applied when deploying assets. Institutes diverge to Transportation Worker Credentials Program in array to ensure appropriate time of the DHS mounting the readers consequently thwarting un-authorized access to offered services.

Safe Port Act is a wide-ranging act that takes steps to forestall terrorization from reaching US, and strengthens security at all ports through tracking and protecting en containers (Ball, 2005) It requires that the DHS should critically deploy nuclear and radiological detection systems in the seaports and ensure establishment of operational measures to observe containers. In addition, it provides risk based funding, sets the time limit for implementation and checks on watch lists of terrorists of all harbor recruits. It also averts threats from getting into USA. Thus, it requires the DHS to assess overseas ports interested in carrying out port activities and inspects containers bound for USA. It tracks and protects the containers en route to USA by improving automated targeting system that collects additional cargo data from shippers and advances international set records system.

Small vessel security strategy majorly addresses risks that might be in relation to smuggling terrorists or armaments of throng destruction, which might be key in as a means of direct attacks to this nation. The ambitions of this policy are enhancing maritime security structure based on cogent structure with stratified pioneering approaches; leveraging partnership along with small vessel society and public and private firms to engender realm awareness and improve technology that will increase sensitivity. Furthermore, it boosts domestic and foreign collaboration.

New Europe U.S. Mexico border similarities and differences

The similarities of the two are;

Both U.S. and Europe borders have become of strong security over the past years. They have limited access to the borders, well built fence structures increased control, and tightened security measures. Still there have been proper modifications along the border that are an input of flexibility and proper monitoring along these borders.

For both countries, increased investment have challenges by different users who include mainly by people who need to serve their personal interests such as drug trafficking and human traffickers who escapes the normal routes and utilizes other ways such as water and the desert to get in countries( Ball, 2005).

The countries also have an uneasy balance between securitization and cooperation. Mainly it occurs in cases of improper practices, which in Europe comprises of corruption, un-authorized entries, and poor planning. In U.S., corruption is not major although to some point there is corruption. Although rules and regulations have clear definition, most people do not follow including the border protectors (Ball, 2005).

In both countries, the borders play a double role where actually, they are open to some point and they are closed to other points. This makes the borders participate in chaotic acts sometimes.


Most of the US border policies fall under aspects of control while most European policies fall under integration. The difference in approaches to immigration integration. The US have increased funding to establish better control policies while Europe has come up with developed detection systems to enhance controls.

US recent measures differ from those of Europe, which are inclusive of the REAL ID technology, while Europe recent measures are new directives to scrutinize immigrations.


This paper has critically discussed on property rights, impacts of counterfeit goods to US economy, health and safety risks from counterfeit goods, threats from IP theft, the Executive Order 13,113. Other subtopics discussed are; purpose of the working group established, concept of smart borders, smart port act, safe port act, small vessel strategy and comparison between US Mexican borders with the New European borders.


Ball, H. (2005). U.S. homeland security: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, Cal. [u.a.: ABC-Clio.

Payan, T. (2006). The three U.S.-Mexico border wars: : drugs, immigration, and Homeland Security. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Security International.

Larson, E. V., Peters, J. E., Arroyo Center., & Rand Corporation. (2001). Preparing the U.S. Army for homeland security: Concepts, issues, and options. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

White, R., Markowski, T., Collins, K., & CW Productions. (2010). The United States Department of Homeland Security: An overview. New York: Pearson] Learning Solutions.

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