Cell Membranes

  1. Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids).
  2. Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthesize proteins. Consists of nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
    1. Tissues: Cells that are grouped together
    2. Organs: Tissues that are grouped together
    3. Systems: Organs that are grouped together
    4. Organism: A complete individual
    5. Nuclear parts of a cell

      Meiosis: Reproduction of gametes zygote

      1. Cell Membrane (Plasma membrane): Semipermeable membrane of lipids and proteins. Made of phospholipid bilayer, hydrophilic ends of the outer layer facing the external environment, the inner layer facing inside the cell, hydrophobic ends facing each other.
        1. Hydrophilic: Water loving, can dissolve water
        2. Hydrophobic: Hates water, can’t dissolve water
      2. Selective Permeability
        1. Selective Permeability with regards to size, charge, and solubility.
      3. Cell structure
          • Functions: Produce energy, cell signaling, cellular differentiation, cell cycle & growth regulation. Can also have aerobic respiration.
            • Animal Cell Structure
            • Cell Cycle: Cell reproduces, growth cell, duplication of genetic material, and cell division.
            • Cell Differentiation: Helps determine the cell type for each cell, process is controlled by genes of each cell (zygote). Following the directions of the genes, a cell builds certain proteins and other substances to set it apart as a specific type of cell.
            • Mitosis: DNA replication & Production of new cells
              • IPMAT=Cytokinesis
                • Interphase: Cell prepares to divide by replicating genetic & cytoplasmic material. (G1, S, G2)
                • Prophase: Chromatic thickens & nuclear membrane disintegrates. Centrioles move to opposite sides of the cells, and spindle fibers form. Mitotic spindle, formed cytoskeleton parts, moves chromosomes around the cell.
                • Metaphase: Spindle moves to the center of the cell. Chromosomes align in the center.
                • Anaphase: Sister chromosomes begin to pull apart. When separated they’re called daughter chromosomes. Grooves appear in the cell. Cell begins to furrow.
                • Telophase: Spindle disintegrates, nuclear membrane reform, and chromosomes turn into chromatin. In animal cells membrane is pinched, in plant cell a new cell wall begins to form. Splits into two.
                • Cytokinesis: Physical splitting of the cell.


              1. Prophase I: Parent cell’s nuclear membrane begins to disappear, spindles form
              2. Metaphase I: Chromosomes line up with homogonous chromosomes. Crossing over may occur
              3. Anaphase I: Homogonous chromosomes are separated, so one of each goes to either side
              4. Telophase I: Cell separates, cytokinesis occurs
              5. Prophase II: Almost simultaneous with Telaphase I; new spindles form and attach to centromeres
              6. Metaphase II: Chromosomes line up again, and some crossing over may occur
                • Anaphase II: Sister chromatids pulled apart at centromeres, towards poles
                • Telophase II: Cell separates, nuclear membranes form, cytokinesis occurs
                • Interphase: Diploid sex cells have double the normal chromosomes necessary


            1. Categories of Tissues
              1. Epithelial: Cells are tightly joined. Ex. Skin
              2. Connective: May be dense, loose, or fatty. Protects and binds body parts. Ex. Bone tissue, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, fat, blood, and lymph.
              3. Cartilage: Cushions & provides structural support for body parts. Jelly like base and fibrous.
              4. Blood: Blood transports oxygen to cells and removes wastes. Carries hormones and defends against diseases.
              5. Bone: Hard tissue that supports and protects softer tissues & organs. Marrow produces red blood cells.
                • 1. Smooth
                    • Cardiac
                        • Skeletal
                          • Nervous: Located inside the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Neurons form network through the body that control responses to changes in the external and internal environment. Some send signals to muscles and glands to trigger responses.

                        10) Skeletal system

                        1. Mammals 11 organ systems
                        2. Integumentary system
                        3. Respiratory system
                        4. Cardiovascular system
                        5. Endocrine system
                        6. Nervous system
                          • Immune system
                          • Digestive system
                          • Excretory system
                          • Muscular system

                      11)Reproductive system

                      ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDERespiratory System

                      1. Three Primary Body Planes
                        1. Transverse (horizontal): Superior and inferior
                        2. Sagittal plane: Right and left sections.
                        3. Coronal (frontal): Front & Back {anterior & posterior}
                      2. Terms of direction
                        1. Medial: toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

                  Cardiovascular System

                  1. Upper respiratory system: Nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx and larynx.
                  2. Lower respiratory system: Trachea, lungs, and bronchial tree
                  3. Airway: nose, nasal cavity, mouth, pharynx (throat, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and bronchial network.
                    1. Lined with cilia, which brings debris toward the mouth
                    2. Lungs: Bronchi, Bronchial network, alveoli
                      1. Alveoli: one cell thick, allow gas exchange with blood capillaries.
                      2. Right lung has three lobes
                          • Left lung has two lobes, leaving room for heart.
                              • Lungs are surrounded by pleural membrane, reduces friction between surfaces when breathing.
                                  • Breathing includes diaphragm & intercostal muscles.
                                      • Diaphragm: dome-shaped muscle that separate the thoracic and abdominal cavities.
                                        • Functions of the Respiratory System
                                        • Breathing process
                                          • Medulla monitors level of carbon dioxide in blood, & signals breathing rate to increase when levels are too high.

                                          ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

                                          Types of circulation

                                          1. Responsible for the internal transport of substances to and from cells.
                                            1. Made up of the following
                                              1. Blood: Blood is composed of water, solutes, and other elements in a fluid connective tissue.
                                              2. Blood Vessels: Tubules of different size that transport blood.
                                              3. Heart: Muscular pump providing the pressure necessary to keep blood flow.
                                                1. Circulatory systems can be open or close.
                                                  • Composed of red & white blood cells, platelets & plasma.
                                                      • Plasma composed of plasma proteins, ions, glucose, amino acids, hormones, & dissolved gases.
                                                          • White blood cells include lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, & basophils. Platelets are fragments of the stem cell & function in blood clotting.
                                                            • Heart
                                                              • Halves separated by AV valves
                                                                  • Located between arteries & ventricles leading away from the heart.
                                                                      • Valves move blood in one direction, preventing it from backing into the chambers.
                                                                          • Heart functions by contracting & relaxing
                                                                              • Cardiac Cycle: Atrial contraction fills the ventricle & ventricular contraction empties them, forcing circulation.
                                                                                • Systole (contracting ventricles)/ Diastole (relaxing ventricles)

                                                                              Blood Pressure

                                                                              1. Coronary circulation: Flow of blood to the heart tissue.
                                                                                1. Coronary arteries: Delivers oxygen-rich blood to myocardium
                                                                                2. Cardiac veins: Vessels that remove deoxygenated blood from heart muscle.
                                                                              2. Pulmonary circulation: Flow of blood between the heart & lungs
                                                                                1. Carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of heart to lungs, & returns oxygenated blood to left atrium & ventricle of the heart.
                                                                              3. Systemic circulation:

                                                                            Lymphatic System

                                                                            1. The pressure of blood against the arterial walls.


                                                                          1. Function: The lymphatic system is to return excess tissue fluid to the bloodstream.
                                                                            1. System consists of transport vessels & lymph organs
                                                                            2. Lymph vascular system consist of: Lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, & lymph ducts.
                                                                            3. Major functions of the lymph vascular systems
                                                                              1. The return of excess fluid to the blood.
                                                                              2. The return of protein from the capillaries.
                                                                              3. The transport of fats from the digestive tract.
                                                                                  • The disposal of debris & cellular waste.
                                                                                      • Nodes contain lymphocytes & plasma cells.
                                                                                          • Spleen filters blood stores of red blood cells & macrophage.
                                                                                              • Thymus secrets hormones & major site of lymphocyte production.

                                                                                              Gastrointestinal System

                                                                                              1. Located in the upper left of the abdomen, & behind the stomach/ below the diaphragm.
                                                                                                1. Made of lymphoid tissue.
                                                                                                2. Blood vessels are connected to spleen by splenic sinuses.
                                                                                                  1. Gastrolienal ligament that connects the stomach to the spleen.
                                                                                                  2. Lienorenal ligament that connects the kidney to the spleen
                                                                                                  3. Middle section of phrenicocolic ligament

                                                                                            Mouth and Stomach

                                                                                            1. Digestive systems function by
                                                                                              1. Movement: Mixes & passes nutrients through the system & eliminates waste.
                                                                                              2. Secretion: Enzymes, hormones, & other substances necessary for digestion are secreted into the digestive tract.
                                                                                              3. Digestive: Includes chemical breakdown of nutrients into smaller units that enter the internal environment.
                                                                                              4. Absorption: Passage of nutrients through plasma membranes into the blood or lymph & then to the body.

                                                                                          Central Nervous System

                                                                                          1. Digestion begins in the mouth (chewing & mixing of nutrient with saliva)
                                                                                            1. Salivary glands are stimulated & secrete saliva (amylase)
                                                                                            2. This initiates breakdown of starch in digestion.
                                                                                            3. Swallowed the food moves down the pharynx into esophagus to the stomach.
                                                                                          2. Stomach is a flexible, muscular sac. Three main function include
                                                                                          3. Mixing and storing food
                                                                                            • Dissolving & degrading food via secretions
                                                                                            • Controlling passage of food into the small intestine
                                                                                            • Protein digestion begins in the stomach. The smooth muscle (peristalsis) then moves the food into small intestine, absorption begins.
                                                                                            • Liver
                                                                                              • Production of bile.
                                                                                                  • Production of certain blood plasma proteins.
                                                                                                      • Production of cholesterol.
                                                                                                          • Storage of excess glucose in the form of glycogen
                                                                                                              • Regulation of amino acids
                                                                                                                  • Processing of hemoglobin (to store iron)
                                                                                                                      • Conversion of ammonia to urea
                                                                                                                          • Purification of blood
                                                                                                                              • Regulation of blood clotting
                                                                                                                                  • Controlling infections by boosting immune factors & removing bacteria.
                                                                                                                                    • Small intestine
                                                                                                                                      • Microvilli increases main absorption
                                                                                                                                        • Large intestine
                                                                                                                                        • Pancreas
                                                                                                                                          • Pancreatic duct connects to the common bile duct near the duodenum.
                                                                                                                                              • Endocrine tissue secrets hormones (insulin) into blood.
                                                                                                                                                  • Blood is supplied from splenic artery, gastroduodenal artery, & superior mesenteric artery.
                                                                                                                                                      • Roles of Pancreas
                                                                                                                                                          • Assists in digestion of foods by secreting enzymes, especially fats & proteins.
                                                                                                                                                              • Precursors of enzymes (zymogens), converted to amylase & pancreatic lipase.
                                                                                                                                                                  • Secretes sodium bicarbonate to neutral stomach acid.
                                                                                                                                                                      • Exocrine functions of pancreas are controlled by hormones secreted by the stomach & duodenum.
                                                                                                                                                                          • Exocrine secretions of pancreas flow into pancreatic duct & are delivered to duodenum through pancreatic duct.
                                                                                                                                                                            • Nervous System
                                                                                                                                                                              • Messages occur when a neuron is stimulated past a necessary threshold.
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Stimulations occur in a sequence from one stimulation point of one neuron to its contact with another neuron.
                                                                                                                                                                                      • Chemical synapse: A substance released that inhibits the action of the adjoining cell.
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Three general function of neurons are
                                                                                                                                                                                              • sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Sensory neurons: Transmit signals to the central nervous system (CNS) from the sensor receptors associated with touch, pain, temperature, hearing, sight, smell, & taste.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Motor neuron: Transmits signals from the CNS to the rest of the body such as signaling muscles or glands to respond.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Interneurons: Transmit signals between neurons
                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Neurons consist of three basic parts:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Cell body: Contains the nucleus of the of the neuron.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Axon: Transmits impulses away from cell body. It’s insulated with oligodendrocytes & myelin sheaths with gaps (nodes of Ranvier). Axon terminates at the synapse.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Dendrites: Receive impulses from sensory receptors or interneurons & transmit them toward the cell body.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Muscular System

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Spinal cord: Protects & supports the vertebrae.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Brain: Consists of hindbrain, medulla oblongata, cerebellum, & pons.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Forebrain: cerebrum, thalamus, & hypothalamus.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Frontal lobe: Short term & working memory, information processing, decision making, planning, & judgment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Parietal lobe: sensory input, touch, pain, pressure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Occipital lobe: Visual input/output & processing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Temporal lobe: Auditory input, processing, & output.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Regulates heart rate, breathing rate, body temperature, & blood pH.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Sympathetic nervous system: Controls body’s reaction to extreme, stressful, & emergency situations. “Fight or Flight”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Parasympathetic nervous system: Controls body’s homeostasis. Relaxes & inhibits high energy functions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Somatic Nervous System & Reflex Arc
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Efferent (motor): Brings signals from central nervous system to sensory organs & muscles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Afferent (sensory): Brings signals from sensory organs & muscles to central nervous system.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDEReproductive system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Three properties of muscles:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Excitability: Electric gradient can reverse when stimulated.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Contraction: Ability to contract, or shorten.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Elongate: Share the capacity to elongate, or relax.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Three types of muscle tissue: Skeletal, Cardiac, & Smooth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Skeletal muscle tissue: Composed of muscle fibers (striated muscle), Voluntary (only one that can move body).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2. Skeletal muscle contraction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3. Made of muscle fibers: when muscle contract sarcomere contract
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    4. Myofibrils: Thick filaments & Thin filaments.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Dark band: thick & thin overlapping.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Light band: thin filaments overlapping.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Sliding filament theory

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Integumentary System

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Male Reproductive System
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Function: Produce, maintain, & transfer sperm & secrete male hormone.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. External structure: Penis, scrotum, & testes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Scrotum: temperature for spermatogenesis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. Testes: Male gonads, produce sperm & testosterone.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5. Epididymis: Produces sperm & testosterone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6. Female Reproductive System

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The stratum basale or stratum germinativum is always the bottom (deepest) layer. Continuous cell division occurs here and produces all the other layers.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Consists of the skin: Sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair, nails.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Function: Protection, Secretion, & communication.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Protects against bacteria, viruses, & various chemicals from entering the body.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Sweat glands help rid the body of metabolic wastes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Sensory receptors: send information to the brain regarding pain, touch, pressure, & temperature.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Protection, secretion, & communication. Skin manufactures vitamin D & absorbs certain chemicals (meds).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Layers of skin

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The stratum spinosum is a layer of 8–10 keratinocytes

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The non-dividing cells of the 3rd layer (stratum granulosum) are filled with granules of keratin.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The stratum lucidum is the 4th layer but is only present in thick skin (the skin of the fingertips, palms, and soles).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The stratum corneum is always outermost, composed of approximately 20 layers of flat cell-remnants that are like “bags of turtle wax” (dead keratinocytes with no cellular organelles filled with only keratin protein.)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skin’s involvement in temperature homeostasis

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Endocrine system

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Sweat glands to cool off body. Vasodilation of blood vessels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Shivering heats the body.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                3. Sebaceous & sweat glands are exocrine. Secret through ducts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4. Sebaceous are holocrine glands, and secrete sebum.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Inhibits water loss from the skin, protects against bacterial & fungal infections.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5. Sweat glands are either eccrine or apocrine glands. Apocrine are located in the armpits, groin, palms, & soles of the feet.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Endocrine functions of the Pancreas

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Adrenal cortex: Monitors blood sugar levels; helps in lipid & protein metabolism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Adrenal medulla: Controls cardiac function; raises blood sugar & controls the size of blood vessels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Thyroid gland: Helps regulate metabolism & functions in growth & development.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Parathyroid: Regulates calcium levels in the blood.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              5. Pancreas islets: Raises & lowers blood sugar; active in carbohydrate metabolism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              6. Thymus gland: Plays a role in immune responses.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pineal gland: Has an influence on daily biorhythms & sexual active maity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pituitary gland: Plays an important role in growth & development.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Thyroid & Parathyroid glands

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Pancreas: Produces insulin & glucagon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Insulin lowers glucose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Insulin affects fat metabolism, & can change livers ability to store fat.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Urinary System

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Thyroid & parathyroid are located below larynx
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Thyroid gland: regulates metabolism & secretes hormones

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Immune System

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Consists of kidneys, urinary ducts, & bladder.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Kidneys: bean-shaped structures located at the back of abdominal cavity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Has three layers: Renal cortex, renal medulla, & renal pelvis.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Kidney receives blood from renal arteries.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3. Kidneys filter the blood, reabsorb needed materials, secrete wastes & excess water in urine.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4. Blood flows from the renal arteries into arterioles into the glomerulus where its filtered. Glomerular filtrate enters the proximal convoluted tubule where water, glucose, ions, & other organic molecules are reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • URINE is drained from the kidneys through the ureters to urinary bladder. Expelled through urethra.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Active & Passive immunity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Protects body against invading pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, & protists.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Immune system includes: lymphatic system (lymph, lymph capillaries, lymph vessels, & lymph nodes)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Lymph nodes are located in the neck, armpits, & groin area.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Thymus is a maturation chamber for immature T-cells that are formed in bone marrow.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Spleen cleans the blood of dead cells, & pathogens.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. The body’s general immune defenses include
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Three types of whte blood cells
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Types of leukocytes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Leukocytes are macrophages. (engulf & destroy pathogens).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Granulocytes (neutrophils, basophils & eosinophils)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • (Neutrophil: respond quickly to invaders)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • (Basophil: alert body of invasion)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Eosinophils: large, long-living phagocytes that defend against multicellular invaders.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • T lymphocytes (help the body fight infections by producing antibodies & other chemicals.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • B lymphocytes (natural killers) (Produce antibodies)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Antigen & Typical Immune Response
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Drugs, Toxins, & foreign particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Plasma cells: produce antibodies specific to that pathogens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of pathogens & mark them for destruction by other phagocytes.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Skeletal System

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Adaptive immunity: reacts to pathogens that have encounter infection or has an immunization.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Adaptive & passive immunity can come naturally or artificially
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Naturally acquired passive immunity is natural, happens during pregnancy -> passes it to the baby.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. Artificially acquired passive immunity: immunization acquired

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ATI TEAS 6 EXAM STUDY GUIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Over 200 bones in human body
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2. Axial skeleton: Skull, sternum, ribs, & vertebral column
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Skull: Cranium, Face
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Hyoid, Auditory ossicles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            3. Vertebral column
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            4. Thorax
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            5. Appendicular skeleton: Arms, legs, hips & shoulders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6. Appendicular Skeleton:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Upper limbs: Humerus, Radius, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Pelvic Girdle:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Hip, Pelvic, or Coxal bone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia, Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Skeletal system function

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Life and physical sciences



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. 4 basic organic macromolecules: carbohydrates (polysaccharides), nucleic acids, proteins, & lipids.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2. 4 basic building blocks: monosaccharides (glucose), amino acids, fatty acids (glycerol), nucleotides.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1. Primary source of energy & responsible for providing energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2. Simple sugars: Monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, & sucrose), & disaccharides.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Lipids are hydrophobic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2. Function: energy storage, & structural function
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              3. Phospholipids are lipids that have phosphate group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4. Glycerides are formed from fatty acids