Benchmark – Proposal for Behavior Change Plan
Grand Canyon University – SPD-540
Benchmark – Proposal for Behavior Change Plan
Part 1: Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA)
The “Angel Case Study” (GCU, 2017) relates that Angel is a student diagnosed with both Specific Learning Disability (SLD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), placed in an inclusive setting for the sixth grade English Language Arts (ELA) class. He has been showing challenging behaviors that prevent him from being successful in class. He continuously finds himself getting into trouble with his peers and teachers. Angel is also known for making negative and inappropriate comments to his classmates, getting out of his seat, and taking things off from his classmates’ desks. These inappropriate behaviors of Angel often prevent him from completing his works in class.
Wanting to provide Angel with support necessary for him to access instructions, Angel’s teacher recorded and shared the information to the Special Education teacher. The gathering of data by the ELA teacher was done through various ways like the Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Analysis Chart. Collecting data is necessary as it helps in determining the function of Angel’s behavior towards developing a relatively indicated behavior intervention plan (BIP) that will eventually provide strategic interventions for success (Ennis, Jolivette, & Swoszowski, 2017). Interventions that are function-based are efficient in reducing off-task behavioral tendencies of students with ADHD like Angel (Stahr, Cushing, Lane, & Fox, 2006).
The summary of the frequency of events is shown in the table below.
|Week of||Total number of times out of seat||Total number of times taking something that wasn’t his||Total number of times arguing and using foul language||Total number of times failed to complete work|
The data collected did not only show how behavior prevented Angel from being successful, but also did manifest an impact on his interaction with peers in class. Angel’s attitude and behavior affected the teaching-learning process, thereby interrupting the education of his peers. Upon reviewing the data and obtaining consent from Angel’s parents to conduct an FBA, the team has determined that Angel’s challenging behavior is due to frustration, attention seeking and task avoidance.
Part 2: Behavior Intervention Plan
Below is a proposal draft for an intervention plan based on FBA data provided within the “Angel Case Study.”
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
Student Name: _______Angel _____________Date: ____
DOB: ___________ Teacher/Case Manager: ____________
|Behavior||Target Goals||Interventions and Frequency of Intervention||Person Responsible||Goal/Intervention Review Notes|
|Out of Seat/ Shouting Out||Lessen disruptions by hand-raising and waiting to be acknowledged before responding.||4 data weeks||ELA teacher, Special Education (SPED) teacher, staff/everyone who works with Angel||Angel will minimize shouting out and getting out of seat by following instruction of raising hands and waiting to be called on during an entire class with an accuracy rate of 80% as observed.|
|Taking Things from Other Students||Avoid taking things not his, keeping hands to self.||4 data weeks||ELA teacher, Special Education (SPED) teacher, staff/everyone who works with Angel||Angel will respond positively to redirections, meeting an acceptable statistical percentage through observation.|
|Inappropriate or argumentative comments to peers||Increase compliance with school rules, routines and procedures. Improve communication and coping skills.||4 data weeks||ELA teacher, Special Education (SPED) teacher, staff/everyone who works with Angel||Angel will use social and coping skills with frequency that is within the measurable target.|
|Incomplete work||On-task behavior and assignment completion.||4 data weeks||ELA teacher, Special Education (SPED) teacher, staff/everyone who works with Angel||Allow Angel other ways to complete assignments (i.e. verbal responses, computer, hands on, audio or video recorded response, etc.) Angel will repeat assignment & directions back to the teacher.|
Myriad of Interventions and Rationale
In many learning circumstances, the creation of a learning-conducive environment can be ushered in by the “development of human relationships that are functional and reciprocal” (Arthur-Kelly, Lyons, Butterfield, & Gordon, 2006, p. 61). For Angel who has SLD and ADHD, it is imperative that the functional and reciprocal relationships and interventions developed with and for him should be based on his fundamental needs to be successful socially and academically. Studies show that students with ADHD are likely to react decidedly when there is a structured setting with routines and systems exhibiting consistency in class, maintaining an organized learning community (Geng, 2011). Clear rules and advanced planning are keys to success for teachers of students with ADHD and other disabilities. Organizational supports should be provided in order to minimize Angel’s possibilities, manifestations and implications of off-task behaviors and attitudes. These organizational supports and strategies may include:
Academic checklist that identifies needed supplies and relative expectations for the class.
Subject folders that are especially coded (like the use of colors) to assist with organization for Angel.
Agenda notebooks that help with management and transition particularly when these notebooks serve specific purposes like one notebook dedicated for homework, another for classwork and notes, and the like.
The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) (2018) committedly upholds protecting and supporting the safety, both physically and psychologically, of students with disabilities or exceptionalities as among the principles of ethics and standards of practice by teachers in the field of Special Education. One way of ensuring the safety of the classroom community is by teaching expectations to students. Modeling and reinforcing appropriate social behavior to Angel may mean teaching the desired expectations upon him (Carter & Pool, 2012).
In terms of providing Angel rewards and reinforcements, the service providers ought to know and understand the triggering factors of any undesirable behaviors. Based on the data from the FBA, rewards and reinforcements aimed at having a behavior change for Angel may be directly or indirectly given. An example of indirect reinforcement is sending him to the office for “something” as a way of giving him a break. On the other hand, an example of a direct way to reinforce a behavior switch to the positive is asking him if going to the bathroom or getting a drink of water is something he needs to do. Such forms of direct and indirect interventions keep Angel moving with a sense of purpose and belonging. The responsibilities and opportunities given to him may eventually be used as a reward mechanism when he tries his best to follow instructions and completes tasks and class assignments. Moreover, reinforcement like positive verbal feedback for any deserving behavior of Angel can also be an effective intervention. As Grunke, Sperling & Burke (2017) suggest, positive verbal feedback is among the components of performance feedback to illustrate the student’s learning progress especially when the teacher tries to encourage the student to complete assignments that are usually avoided.
In conclusion, the case of Angel is only one of the many possible scenarios in managing cases of students with exceptionalities or disabilities. It is imperative that case managers and service providers know and understand the disabilities of the student, the demands on the student with disabilities, strategies on how to approach the disability manifestations and meet the student’s needs. Most importantly, it takes a dedicated and committed teacher to truly care and impact positive behavior changes upon a student with disabilities who displays and manifests challenging behaviors. Observing or practicing the ethical principles and professional practice standards for all teachers is at all times beneficial to every concerned stakeholder in the education of all students like Angel.
Arthur-Kelly, M., Lyons, G., Butterfield, N., & Gordon, C. (2006). Classroom management:
Creating positive learning environments (2nd edition). South Melbourne, VIC: Thomson.
Carter, D. R., & Pool, J. L. (2012). Appropriate social behavior: Teaching expectations to young children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 40(5), 315-321. doi:10.1007/s10643-012-0516-y
Council for Exceptional Children. (2018). Ethical principles and professional practice standards for special educators. Retrieved from https://www.cec.sped.org/Standards/Ethical-Principles-and-Practice-Standards
Ennis, R. P., Jolivette, K., & Swoszowski, N. C. (2017). Special considerations for using functional behavior assessment and functionally-indicated interventions with students in alternative educational settings. Beyond Behavior, 26(3), 141-151. doi:10.1177/1074295617728512
GCU. (2017). SPD-540 Angel Case Study. Retrieved from https://lc-grad3.gcu.edu/learningPlatform/content/content.html?operation=viewContent&contentId=8237cb16-0073-4edc-a557-f22f5d0f3872
Geng, G. (2011). Investigation of teachers’ verbal and non-verbal strategies for managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) students’ behaviours within a classroom environment. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 36(7), 17-30.
Grunke, M., Sperling, M., & Burke, M. D. (2017). The impact of explicit timing, immediate feedback, and positive reinforcement on the writing outcomes of academically and behaviorally struggling fifth-grade students. Insights Into Learning Disabilities, 14(2), 135-153.
Stahr, B., Cushing, D., Lane, K., & Fox, J. (2006). Efficacy of a function-based intervention in decreasing off-task behavior exhibited by a student with ADHD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8(4), 201-211.