Plants are classified under kingdom plantae in modern scientific classification.
Plants make their own food.
Plant classification based on roots and seeds.
Cross section of a leaf diagram
Figure 1. leaf cross section (Lubey, 2014)
Description of the leaf anatomy
Each part of a leaf performs a unique function.
Epidermis categorized as either upper or lower epidermis.
Vascular bundle made up of xylem and phloem.
Mesophyll layer divided into palisade and spongy layer
Adaptation of the leaf to photosynthesis
Cuticle layer is thin and transparent.
Palisade layer densely packed with chloroplasts
Guard cells and stomata located in lower epidermis.
Spongy mesophyll loosely packed and below palisade layer.
The leaf is thin for easier gaseous exchange.
Cross section of a root diagram
Figure 2. root cross section(Advanced Placement Biology Laboratory Manual, 2004)
Description of the root anatomy
Roots classified as either being monocot or dicot.
The overall root structure is divided into sections.
Each structure performs a particular function.
Roots perform various functions such as storage and respiration
Functions of the root structures
Each root structure performs has a specific function.
Root hairs are only found in zone of maturation.
Root structure adaptations to their functions
Root structures have different adaptations to suit their functions.
root tip is composed of living and dead cells.
Cell division takes place in zone of cell division.
Root hair are unicellular extensions of epidermal cells.
Plant Nutrient Functions and Deficiency Symptoms
Table 1. plant nutrient functions and deficiency symptoms ( University of Phoenix, 2015; J, Silva; R, Uchida, 2000)
Role in plant functions
Description of deficiency
improves quality and quantity of dry matter
Used in enzymatic reactions and as protein building block.
stunted growth, reduced protein content of seeds.
Early maturity and pale-light yellow leaf appearance
essential to protein synthesis and fruit formation
Increases photosynthesis and disease resistance.
chlorosis, weak stems and lodging, Slow and stunted growth.
Reduced size and quantity of seed and fruit
involved in respiration, photosynthesis and cell division.
Vital to seed formation
slow, stunted and weak growth
Delayed maturity and poor fruit and seed development
formation of cell wall membrane
Detoxifying agent by neutralizing organic acids in plants
brown root tip, stunted growth.
Blossom and buds fall prematurely
major component of chlorophyll
Stabilizes ribosome particles.
premature leaf drop
Yellow striped or orange –yellow leaves
Parts of the plant have adapted to their functions.
Environmental factors affect how plants grow.
Nutrients are essential for proper plant growth.
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