BOS 4201 Unit VIII Assessment BOS 4201

7 Oct No Comments

Unit VIII Assessment

Question 1

 

Dermal absorption of a chemical depends on all of the following EXCEPT:

    the nature of the substance.
    concentration.
    duration of contact time.
    location on the body.

2 points  

Question 2

 

The fastest absorption into the body from a drug dose is a result of which route of exposure?

    Inhalation
    Injection
    Dermal
    Ingestion

2 points  

Question 3

 

Effects from depressants include all of the following EXCEPT:

    sedation
    illusions
    confusion
    coma

2 points  

Question 4

 

Reduction in absorption of a drug that is ingested is accomplished by all of the following EXCEPT:

    Gastric lavage.
    Activated charcoal.
    Decontamination.
    Charcoal hemoperfusion.

2 points  

Question 5

 

What can be used to treat methanol poisoning?

    Ethanol
    Ethylene glycol
    Hemodialysis
    Digoxin

Question 6

 

Use an example of any drug or chemical, discuss how the route of exposure can affect the toxicity.

Your response should between 200-250 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, very dangerous gas with a “rotten egg” smell. This toxic chemical happens naturally in crude petroleum and when the breakdown of organic matter and human/ animal wastes (sewage) occurs, H2S can develop. (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014, pgs. 308) Hydrogen sulfide main routes of exposure is either by inhalation which can cause death if inhaled in large doses. Depending on the exposure time it can cause severe irritation of the nose and throat, life-threatening buildup of fluid in the lungs, headache, dizziness, staggering, unconsciousness, and death. H2S direct skin contact with liquefied gas can chill or freeze the skin and cause frostbite. Mild frostbite symptoms include numbness, prickling and itching and cause the skin to become waxy white or yellow. Severe frostbite may consist of a burning sensation and stiffness, this can cause the skin to blister, tissue death and infection may develop. H2S gas exposure to the eye can cause irritation and liquefied gas direct contact to the eye can freeze the eye causing permanent eye damage or blindness. Ingestion of H2S is not a relevant route of exposure. The effects of Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) long-term exposure can harm the nervous system, respiratory system and lead to death. (Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), 2005, October 1, Pg. 1-2)

Reference:

Richards, I., & Bourgeois, M. (2014). Principles and practice of toxicology in public health (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S). (2005, October 1). Retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/data_Hurricane_Facts/hydrogen_sulfide_fact.pdf

Question 7

 

Describe how toxicant absorption is limited for inhalation, absorption, and ingestion.

Your response should between 200-250 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

In order for toxicants to be absorbed into the body and cause an effect it first must breakthrough barriers before entering the internal compartments of the body. If the breakthrough does not occur then the effects of the toxin will be kept to the site of exposure. Toxicants may enter the body through one of three methods: The respiratory system where the lungs are the entry point for toxic gases, solvents, aerosols, and particulates. The gastrointestinal system which has a large surface covering an area around 300 m2 in adults which can influence the absorption of toxicants due to the pH value in the stomach and in the small intestine. The integumentary system or “skin”, with a surface area of approximately 2 m2, is not very absorbent to most water-soluble chemicals except for lipid-soluble compounds. Any cuts or injury to the skin escalates absorption which can cause systemic toxicity. (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014, pgs. 129) There are several ways that a toxicant can be absorbed into the body but it does not mean there would be any significant systemic toxicity. However, the route of absorption can influence the spreading of a toxicant within the body which will affect its metabolism, potential toxicity, and excretion. The absorption of toxicants in the body through the integumentary, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems is important to understand what the symptoms may appear. (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014, pgs. 130)

Reference:

Richards, I., & Bourgeois, M. (2014). Principles and practice of toxicology in public health (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Question 8

 

Identify two categories of street drugs, provide at least two examples of each and the toxicity related to each.

Your response should between 200-250 words in length. You are required to use at least your textbook as source material for your response. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations.

The four categories of street drugs are stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and narcotics. Stimulants include methamphetamine (“speed,” “crystal,” “ice”), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy,” MDMA, XTC), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methylphenidate (Ritalin, used to treat attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders, especially in children), phenmetrazine (used to treat obesity) and cocaine (in all its forms). The depressants (sedative hypnotics) street drugs consist of barbiturates like pentobarbital (yellow jackets), phenobarbital (purple hearts), amobarbital (blue angels), and secobarbital (red devils), as well as, benzodiazepines include flurazepam (sleeping pills), flunitrazepam (“date rape drug”), diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), clonazepam (anticonvulsant), and methaqualone (Quaalude or “downers”). (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014, pgs. 421). Another popular street drug among teenagers and young adults is the clinical drug Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol). This drug is used to manage insomnia and as a sedative hypnotic and preanesthetic medication. The hallucinogens street drugs are cannabis: marijuana, delta-9-THC, anticholinergics: atropine, scopolamine, mandrake root, jimson weed, and indolamines: lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), morning glory seed (LSM), psilocybin, psilocin, ibogaine, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), Phenylethylamines: mescaline, bufotenin, dimethoxymethylamphetamine (DOM) and dissociative anesthetics: ketamine, phencyclidine (PCP). Theses Hallucinogens Street drugs target receptors, have serious toxic effects and are often measured together because of the common form of intoxication that includes hallucinations, delusions, and illusions that occasionally result in death due to dangerous behaviors. Narcotic intoxications consist of morphine, heroin, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, codeine (methylmorphine), dihydrocodeine, hydrocodone (Dicodid, Hycodan), and oxycodone (Percodan). (Richards & Bourgeois, 2014, pgs. 422)

Reference:

Richards, I., & Bourgeois, M. (2014). Principles and practice of toxicology in public health (2nd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett.




Click following link to download this document

BOS 4201 Unit VIII Assessment BOS 4201.docx

Would you like your assignment done free from plagiarism by an expert? Place your order now and it shall be done within the timeframe you indicate.

To view and download a complete answer, scroll down to the bottom to pay Pay to view