CJ 333 – Unit 2 Assignment
Domestic violence can take many forms and discriminates against no one. We are able to see it through physical, verbal, sexual, and emotional. Statistics show that there is about one in every four women and one in every nine men encounter a form of violence. (National Statistics, n.d) In addition, on average, per minute about 20 individuals encounter some physical abuse by their domestic partner. (National Statistics, n.d)
The major areas of domestic violence in present day America are sexual, physical, financial and psychological abuse. Sexual abuse is any form of sexual contact that was not consensual. Sexual abuse is described as rape, explicit photographing, unwanted touching, sodomy. (Kindschi, 2013) Physical abuse is one of the present day problems in today’s society. Physical abuse can include in injury to the person’s body, causing them pain or harm. Physical abuse may be visible and some signs can include bruises, any marks, burns, broken blood vessels. (Kindschi, 2013) Financial abuse can be witnessed as victims being controlled and or held back from obtaining money. Also, their partner can control all finances or the ability of the victim of working. Psychological abuse is also among the violence problems in American Society, this can be any form of verbal assaults, insults, making the victim feel uncomfortable. (Kindschi, 2013)
Comparing the Latino culture, they experience some similarities in terms of their abuse. With certain differences from the American, culture being financial abuse – most of the latin women who encountered abuse are undocumented, do not speak English, whom which are not working, and do not have resources to obtain help. (García-Leeds & Schneider, 2017). Their fear of not being able to provide for their home due to them not being able to obtain a job. They stay in the abuse relationship due to finances. Psychological abuse is also very common; most of the Hispanic women encountering abuse by their partner may not be aware of the laws and due to lack of language may not seek out for help. Their partner may threaten them by telling her that her children may be taken away from her if she reports him to law enforcement. (Casa De Esperanza, 2016) Physical abuse is also common, about 10% of Latinas have reported that they have encountered physical violence during their pregnancy. (Casa De Esperanza, 2016) Emotional abuse is also witnessed, 19% of Latinas have also encountered emotional violence during their pregnancy by their partners. (Casa De Esperanza, 2016)
In the Latino community, there is a lot of experience where men control women in order to show power in the relationship this can be witnessed through different methods of abuse. Anywhere from physical, sexual, economic, verbal or even psychological. Some of the similarities with the American communities being that domestic violence appears in the same forms.
In Africa, the most common forms of abuse toward partners are sexual, physical, dowry-related, and emotional. Some of the sexual abuse that the women encountered can be but not limited to; sexual harassment, marital rape, forced pregnancies, forced abortions, and even forced sterilization. Physical abuse – women experience genital mutilation. Even though this is a common practice, women are suffering from infections, excessive bleeding, and childbirth complications to even death. (Kimani, 2012) In addition, dowry related violence -women may also encounter physical abuse if her family is not able to pay the dowry, her own family may beat her. (Kimani, 2012) Emotional abuse can be witnessed by the women who have lost their partner are being forced to be inherited by other male members of her husband’s family. Making her feel like she is “family property”, and she belongs to them. (Kimani, 2012)
In Africa the women are made to feel like they are property, there really is not a sense of protection for them. In comparison to American culture, they differ from the form of abuse that they have. Dowry related violence, genital mutilation, and family inheritance of the wife are all forms of violence that is not seen in the American society. Similarities can be sexual abuse and physical abuse.
In the Filipino community, on average women between the ages of 18 – 60 have experienced the following type of abuse physical, sexual, and stalking. Physical abuse, about 95% of Filipinas, endured abuse by their partners who were under the influence of drugs and alcohol, anger, or under stress. Women tend to justify the reason for the abuse, either that they “misbehaved”, they lied or that they cheated. Abusers thrown objects or have used weapons against their victims. (Domestic & Sexual Violence in Filipino Communities, 2018) 56% of the women reported being sexually abuse and 68% reported stalking.
In comparison, Filipino women found justification for the abuse they were receiving and they have learned to accept the violence because of something they did wrong. In American culture, we do not justify any form of abuse whether or not it were related due to cheating or lying.
In India, roughly one in every three women encounter some form of domestic violence. They include physical, emotional, sexual and economical abuse. About 27% of women reported that they have been physically abused. With this type of abuse, they have either endured broken bones, broken teen and or deep wounds. (Saaliq, 2018)Women have reported that they have encountered sexual abuse from their husbands, forcing them to perform sexual acts that they did not feel comfortable doing. In addition, they may encounter marital rape. (Saaliq, 2018) Statistic reflect that economical abuse and emotional violence was at 13%. In India, women were surprisingly in agreeance with the domestic violence that they were receiving. In comparison to the American culture, India does not consider marital ape a crime. In addition, no form of abuse is justified.
Abuse is seen in many different forms from sexual, emotional, psychological and economical. Does not matter what part of the world you are located abuse exist in many different forms. We have been able to see what types or laws and regulations there are in place for victims of abuse. We have been able to see that there are those cultures who have accepted abuse.
Casa De Esperanza. (2016, October 03). 31 Facts About Domestic Violence in Latino Communities. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://enblog.nationallatinonetwork.org/31-facts-about-domestic-violence-in-latin-community/
Domestic & Sexual Violence in Filipino Communities. (2018, February). Retrieved March 12, 2019, from https://s3.amazonaws.com/gbv-wp-uploads/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/21212329/DVFactSheet-Filipino-Feb-2018.pdf
García-Leeds, C. B., & Schneider, L. (2017). Systemic Approach in Latino Families Surviving Domestic Violence in the United States of America. Journal of Educational Psychology – Propositos y Representaciones, 5(2), 277–319. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.libauth.purdueglobal.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1159398&site=eds-live
Kimani, M. (2012). Taking on violence against women in Africa | Africa Renewal Online. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from https://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/special-edition-women-2012/taking-violence-against-women-africa
Kindschi, D (2013). Heavy Hands: An Introduction to the Crimes of Intimate and Family Violence, 5th Edition. [Purdue University Global Bookshelf]. Retrieved from https://purdueuniversityglobal.vitalsource.com/#/books/undefined/https://purdueuniversityglobal.vitalsource.com/#/books/undefined/
National Statistics. (n.d.). Retrieved March 12, 2019 from https://ncadv.org/statistics
Saaliq, S. (2018, February 08). Every Third Woman In India Suffers Sexual, Physical Violence at Home. Retrieved January 5, 2019, from https://www.news18.com/news/india/the-elephant-in-the-room-every-third-woman-in-india-faces-domestic-violence-1654193.html