Critical Thinking Essay: Mr. C
Critical Thinking Essay: Mr. C
Describe the clinical manifestations present in Mr. C.
Mr. C, a 32-year-old man, is single. He is reported to have a case of obesity and seeks advice on whether to conduct a bariatric surgery as a corrective measure. From the report, the situation is getting worse as he has gained 100 pounds in the last 2-3 years. Obesity puts in the risk of getting coronary heart disease, hypertension and also type 2 diabetes. Mr. C says that he has been obese since he was a child. It is a risk since being overweight at a young age shows the possibility of getting chronic conditions. His results indicate high blood pressure, which he has been controlling through sodium restriction in his diet. However, the blood pressure is high and thus indicates chances of uncontrolled hypertension. He reveals that he also experiences sleep apnea. He experiences breath shortness, which indicates issues with his respiratory system. The levels of fasting blood sugar levels in combination with high BMI show the chances of having diabetes (Qiu, Zhao, Butenschön, Bauer, Schneider, Skolnik, & Feng, 2016). The lipid panel, cholesterol, HDL and creatinine levels depict that he has hyperlipidemia. The results also indicate the availability of chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the clinical manifestations reveal that Mr. C has numerous risk factors such as hypertension, sleep apnea, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as chronic kidney disease.
Describe the potential health risks for obesity that are of concern for Mr. C. Discuss whether bariatric surgery is an appropriate intervention.
Mr. C has a severe obesity condition that can result in several conditions. Obesity can expose one to health risks such as sleep apnea, hypertension, kidney diseases, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease, and even certain types of cancer. From the information given concerning Mr. C, he is exposed to most of these potential health risks. Mr. C is viable to have bariatric surgery. His obese condition is exposing to numerous health conditions that need serious intervention. It will be essential to have bariatric surgery to enable him to gain control of weight (Schauer, Bhatt, Kirwan, Wolski, Aminian, Brethauer, & Kashyap, 2017). Mr. C is qualified for the surgery since his BMI is above 40 and is in the right age limits. He also does not have any medical issues or pyscho-emotional challenge that can render the surgery risky. The surgery will help him control other diseases that arise due to obesity. Mr. C is likely to have positive results by conducting bariatric surgery.
Assess each of Mr. C.’s functional health patterns using the information given. Discuss at least five actual or potential problems can you identify from the functional health patterns and provide the rationale for each. (Functional health patterns include health-perception, health-management, nutritional, metabolic, elimination, activity-exercise, sleep-rest, cognitive-perceptual, self-perception/self-concept, role-relationship, sexuality/reproductive, coping-stress tolerance.)
The information given concerning Mr. C’s health status, he has different aspects of functional health patterns. They show some of the actual or even potential health issues. For health-perception patterns, the patient has some health issues like obesity, hypertension, diabetes and sleep apnea. His current health status puts him at risk of other diseases like coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney diseases and can result in death if not controlled. It will be vital to ensure the right measures are taken to restore the health of Mr. C. Health management will be essential to help Mr. C correct his health status. It will help him deal with current health issues and prevent potential illnesses from occurring. The nutritional function can be used effectively by providing education on healthy diet and lifestyle. It will help in taking the right foods and doing exercise to reduce the issue of obesity. Metabolic patterns entail choosing a healthy diet to address the issue of hypertension and help prevent the occurrence of diabetes. Elimination function entails changing the normal bad patterns. Mr.C can take more water and change the bowel pattern. It will be essential to aid in digestion. The activity-exercise function can make Mr.C exercise frequently hence help him deal with hyperlipidemia. The sleep-rest function will be used to correct the issue of sleep apnea. Cognitive-perceptual will enable Mr. C to understand his current situation and the potential risks then see the need for change in his lifestyle. Self-perception function entails making Mr. C have a positive outlook concerning his issue. It will make him feel confident about himself. The role-relationship function is important to have a support group. However, the patient doesn’t show the presence of any relationship in his life. Sexuality/reproductive is not evident in the assessment since Mr. C is not in a relationship. Coping-stress tolerance function is essential to help him control the stress of his condition. It could have been essential in preventing stress eating.
Explain the staging of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributing factors to consider.
Chronic kidney disease occurs in stages. An individual can experience gradual and eventually develop permanent kidney failure. It can take months to years to experience loss of kidney function. Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) is used to measure kidney disease stages. It measures the ability of the kidney to filtrate. The kidney functionality lowers with a decrease in GFR (Thomson, Ekinci, Radcliffe, Seah, MacIsaac, Jerums, & Premaratne, 2016). When the kidneys can’t perform above 10 percent of its normal functioning, the patient is at the end-stage renal disease. ESRD contributing factors hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, and low hemoglobin (Kattah, Scantlebury, Agarwal, Mielke, Rocca, Weaver, & Garovic, 2017).
Consider ESRD prevention and health promotion opportunities. Describe what type of patient education should be provided to Mr. C. for the prevention of future events, health restoration, and avoidance of deterioration of renal status.
ESRD is a significant health issue that has to be controlled. First, it will be essential to control its contributing factors to reduce its risk. It will also be necessary to promote the identification and screening of individuals with a high risk of getting ESRD. Lifestyle modification will help in enabling people to adopt a healthy lifestyle that lower chances of developing ESRD. Nurses have to be well equipped to deal with such patients. In case the patients get to ESRD, dialysis and kidney transplant are used for kidney treatment. Patients can learn to take charge of their condition. For instance, using teach-back as a type of patient education will equip patients will all relevant and comprehensive information about their sickness. They will know the risk factors and how to deal with it (Centrella-Nigro, & Alexander, 2017). They will thus, adopt the right lifestyles and measures to control their health issues.
Explain the type of resources available for ESRD patients for nonacute care and the type of multidisciplinary approach that would be beneficial for these patients. Consider aspects such as devices, transportation, living conditions, and return-to-employment issues.
ESRD patients can access numerous resources. They can get support from groups as well as multidisciplinary approaches. They can get in touch with nephrologists, physicians, nutritionists and also emergency resources. Support groups are essential for individuals to meet their peers and boost their self-esteem. Nutritionists will help the patients manage their diet. Physicians and nephrologists can provide adequate information concerning the disease. Devices necessary for handling ESRD cases can be provided in healthcare. They will help give appropriate treatment to the patient. Healthcare coverage is essential to aid in catering for patient’s transport and also living condition issues. Social workers are critical people that can help patients recover to achieve their full potential. They will then gain the capacity to run their daily operations.
Centrella-Nigro, A. M., & Alexander, C. (2017). Using the teach-back method in patient education to improve patient satisfaction. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 48(1), 47-52.
Kattah, A. G., Scantlebury, D. C., Agarwal, S., Mielke, M. M., Rocca, W. A., Weaver, A. L., … & Garovic, V. D. (2017). Preeclampsia and ESRD: the role of shared risk factors. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 69(4), 498-505.
Qiu, Y., Zhao, D., Butenschön, V. M., Bauer, A. T., Schneider, S. W., Skolnik, E. Y., … & Feng, Y. (2016). Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B deficiency causes a diabetes-like vascular pathology via up-regulation of endothelial angiopoietin-2 in the retina. Acta diabetologica, 53(1), 81-89.
Schauer, P. R., Bhatt, D. L., Kirwan, J. P., Wolski, K., Aminian, A., Brethauer, S. A., … & Kashyap, S. R. (2017). Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes—5-year outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(7), 641-651.
Thomson, H. J., Ekinci, E. I., Radcliffe, N. J., Seah, J. M., MacIsaac, R. J., Jerums, G., & Premaratne, E. (2016). Elevated baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is independently associated with a more rapid decline in renal function of patients with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 30(2), 256-261.