Fitness and Nutrition

Annotated Bibliographies

Name of Student

Institution of Affiliation

Research topic: The role of Nutrition and fitness in promoting good health

Aguilera, J. M. (2018). The food matrix: implications in processing, nutrition and health. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 1-18.

Author’s Abstract

“The concept of food matrix has received much attention lately in reference to its effects on food processing, nutrition and health. However, the term matrix is used vaguely by food and nutrition scientists, often as synonymous of the food itself or its microstructure. This review analyses the concept of food matrix and proposes a classification for the major types of matrices found in foods. The food matrix may be viewed as a physical domain that contains and/or interacts with specific constituents of a food (e.g., a nutrient) providing functionalities and behaviors which are different from those exhibited by the components in isolation or a free state. The effect of the food matrix (FM-effect) is discussed in reference to food processing, oral processing and flavor perception, satiation and satiety, and digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. The FM-effect has also implications in nutrition, food allergies and food intolerances, and in the quality and relevance of results of analytical techniques. The role of the food matrix in the design of healthy foods is also discussed”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The article presents the food matrix as a physical domain while outlining the contribution played by food processing, flavour perception, and digestion in fostering different nutrition behaviours in people. Different effects that the food matrix has on consumers in terms of allergies, quality, and food tolerances have been analysed and the way they affected the overall health of consumers. The author has gone ahead to investigate how different food matrices have been designed to improve quality of food to foster good health. The concept of food matrix and the way it is used to design healthy foods as a strategy for improving general body health has been presented. The article makes a simplified but effective argument on how different eating and nutrition behaviours are affected by myriads of food matrices that people develop. It does an informative job by outlining different factors that affect nutrition patterns that people develop and the approaches that can be taken to effectively design an acceptable food matrix that when followed can accommodate everyone in consuming a balanced diet for holistic health improvement.

Strength

The author uses simple English to address health issues in relation to how food matrices designed by professionals can contribute to better food consuming behaviour. Moreover, comprehensible examples and demonstrations have been used to enable the reader understand what the article aims at addressing in regards to food, nutrition, and health.

Weakness

The article is subjective and partially relies on scientific arguments on the role of food matrix in creating a design of healthy foods, as well as presenting opinions in presenting arguments.

Branca, F., Piwoz, E., Schultink, W., & Sullivan, L. M. (2015). Nutrition and health in women, children, and adolescent girls. bmj, 351, h4173.

Author’s abstract

“Investment in nutrition is crucial to future efforts to improve the health of women, children, and adolescents; the potential human, societal, and economic gains from such investment are substantial. Clear global commitments to action are in place, backed by targets to measure progress. All contributors, across government and society, must come together to turn these commitments into action. Specific actions are needed to improve the quality of the diet; to protect, promote, and support breast feeding; to ensure that everyone has access to essential nutrition actions; to provide adequate water and sanitation; and to provide information and education”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

This is a scientific article journal that presents qualitative analysis on nutrition and health on women, adolescents, and children. The authors make a brief analysis of the need to tackle malnutrition as the basic strategy in improving the general population health. The main argument presented by the authors is that malnutrition leads to lack of essential balanced diets globally leading to overall negative health implications. As a result, nutrition related highlights have been presented to outline prioritized actions on how to improve the health of children, women, and adolescents as the largest affected group. The article is brief but it explores essential aspects that contribute to poor health among women, children, and adolescents. It supports the argument that malnutrition is a serious global problem affecting these groups, by presenting statistical figures gathered from reliable sources.

Strength

The article is simple, precise, and presents a summary of malnutrition as a global problem affecting women, children, and adolescents. The structure of the paper is strengthened by multiple subsections that cover different aspects making it easy for the reader to comprehend. It also uses presentation diagrams and research data to reinforce the arguments being presented.

Weakness

The article journal is too narrow and presents limited information on the topic. Moreover, it does not provide an explanation as to why men are not a vulnerable group to malnutrition

Castrejón-Pérez, R. C., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., Gutiérrez-Robledo, L. M., Cesari, M., & Pérez-Zepeda, M. U. (2018). Frailty, diabetes, and the convergence of chronic disease in an age-related condition: a population-based nationwide cross-sectional analysis of the Mexican nutrition and health survey. Aging clinical and experimental research, 30(8), 935-941.

Author’s Abstract

“We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a representative sample of older adults (n = 5379). We generated a 35-item frailty index (FI) and obtained information on diabetes and related conditions (peripheral neuropathy, lower limb amputation, diabetic coma, number of physician visits due to diabetes-related conditions, all-cause hospitalizations in the past year, years since diabetes diagnosis, and type of treatment). Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to determine the associations between frailty and diabetes and its complications”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

This article concentrates on a cross-sectional survey done on older adults in Mexico to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in relation to nutrition and diets. The presented argument is that good and balanced nutrition can be used to control the rate of diabetes among adults in the country. The essentialities of crucial nutrients in diets that aid in creating body immunity have been explored via the determination of frailty and diabetes among the populations. The authors use a cross-sectional analysis of 5,379 older adults and obtained information on diabetes and other related conditions. The exploration aims at relating diabetes mellitus as a chronic epidemiology to nutritional behaviour undertaken by Mexicans. The research study presented is a part of a nutrition and health survey aimed at creating health systems with nutritional value to curb the rise of chronic diseases.

Strength

The article presents a scientific research study that is reliable and with statistical evidence and inferences made from a randomly selected group of participants. It acts as a good case study for nutritional value as a preventive approach to chronic diseases

Weakness

The presented conclusion in the study is reliant on just a single experiment and uses little information from other researchers to support the presented arguments.

DeBruyne, L., & Pinna, K. (2013). Nutrition for Health and Healthcare. Nelson Education.

Author’s Abstract

“Current, practical information in a real-world context for future nurses and health care professionals. Designed for the clinical nutrition and/or diet therapy nutrition course, NUTRITION FOR HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE is a trusted text that demonstrates the important role of nutrition to future nurses and health care professionals in their future careers. The text begins by covering basic nutrition concepts and proceeds with clinical topics organized by organ systems, linking nutrition to different disease states, such as diabetes, renal disease, and liver disorders. Each chapter includes practical information, current research, and clinical practice guidelines for addressing nutrition concerns and incorporating nutrition into care plans. Valuable supplements accompany this text to help instructors prepare for class and to help students succeed in their course”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

This book covers the issues related to food and nutrition from a scientific point of view. It acts as a research guide on health matters ranging from different diets, nutrition aspects, preventive role of foods on diseases, consequences of poor nutrition, and the need to create nutrition and healthcare systems that address dietary issues. Different disorders as a result of poor nutrition have been explored and different recommendations made on how to address these disorders from a dietary approach. The book makes vast explorations on fitness and nutrition and the way they regulate body weight, energy balance in the body, and metabolic aspects of the body. The authors go ahead to explore how nutrition and fitness contribute to prevention of different diseases. It goes ahead to outline the need to observe diet and nutrition as a basic strategy towards great health implications to humanity.

Strengths

The book evaluates and analyzes different types of foods ranging from carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and fruits as essentialities nutritional components in promoting good health. The information presented has also been scientifically proven. The authors compile information from different renowned nutritional experts thus making the research credible.

Weakness

The book is too wide and detailed and does not aim to present a specific argument in regards to nutrition, fitness and good health, but rather uses a general approach to present nutrition as an important factor in promoting good health.

De Cock, N., Vangeel, J., Lachat, C., Beullens, K., Vervoort, L., Goossens, L., … & Eggermont, S. (2017). Use of fitness and nutrition apps: associations with body mass index, snacking, and drinking habits in adolescents. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 5(4).

Author’s Abstract

“This study assessed whether the use of commercial fitness or nutrition apps was associated with a lower BMI and healthier snacking and drinking habits in adolescents. Additionally, it explored if perceived behavioral control to eat healthy; attitudes to eat healthy for the good taste of healthy foods, for overall health or for appearance; social norm on healthy eating and social support to eat healthy mediated the associations between the frequency of use of fitness or nutrition apps and BMI, the healthy snack, and beverage ratio”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The article provides detailed experimental research that proves that technology can be incorporated in improving health at a personal level. The use of BMI analysis on participants is a simple scientific approach that proves that the use of fitness and nutrition apps influence good and health eating and exercising behaviours which lead to a healthy nation. As a result, this article seeks to prove whether the applications are effective in improving health through by keeping the Body Mass Index (BMI) low. It uses an experimental approach on adolescents to determine the effectiveness of the applications.

Strength

The use of an experimental approach in determining the role of technological application in improving personal health offers great insight. Moreover, the journal covers both nutrition and fitness and how they complement each other in improving health.

Weakness

The experiment conducted is based on adolescents alone; more age groups should have been incorporated to create a comparative study that will prove that fitness and nutrition applications are effective in improving personal health through influencing behaviours that will always keep BMI st the required range.

De Smet, S., & Vossen, E. (2016). Meat: The balance between nutrition and health. A review. Meat Science, 120, 145-156.

Author’s Abstract

“Fresh and processed meats provide high biological value proteins and important micronutrients. On the other hand, a working group of IARC recently classified processed meat as ‘carcinogenic to humans’ and red meat as ‘probably carcinogenic to humans’ for colorectal cancer, appealing to critically consider the future role of meat in a healthy diet. This manuscript first evaluates the contribution of meat consumption to the supply of important micronutrients in the human food chain, and the extent to which this can be improved by primary production strategies, and impacts on human health. Secondly, the IARC hazard analysis of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption is discussed, arguing that having more insight in the mechanisms of the association offers opportunities for mitigation. It is advocated that the benefits and risks associated with red and processed meat consumption should not necessarily cause dilemmas, if these meats are consumed in moderate amounts as part of balanced diets”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The article makes a vast and detailed exploration on the health hazards that consumption of processed and red meat can bring the general health status of the body. It used simple language and analytical approaches. The authors have used an open ended argument on how meat consumption is essential in promotion of health, but also explores the health hazards that come with consumption of different types of meat. The main argument presented is that meat consumption is essential but it should be regulated in proportionate amounts that rhyme with the consumption of other types of foods. . It has gone ahead to make an IARC hazard analysis that is fetched by processed and read meat consumption. The authors have presented different arguments on the benefits and risks that processed and red meats fetch in the body after consumption, and the mitigation strategies that can be used to regulate consumption and keep general body health in check.

Strength

Some of the advantages and strengths that the authors have presented in this article is the exploration and analysis of the benefits and health hazards that consumption of meat fetches when it is not taken in the right proportions. It has also gone to categorize different micronutrients that the body requires for it to maintain a healthy status. In addition, physical exercise has been advocated as an effective way of controlling the body mass index after the consumption of meat.

Weaknesses

Despite the journal presenting a detailed manuscript and analysis of meat as an important nutrition diet, and the hazards that come with its uncontrolled consumption, the article fails to explore other diets such as carbohydrates and vitamins. It also makes a too much brief exploration on physical fitness as part of a good body health system.

Garza, C., Onyango, A. W., & Martorell, R. (2006). WHO child growth standards. M. De Onis (Ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.

Author’s Abstract

“Aim: To describe the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) sample with regard to screening, recruitment, compliance, sample retention and baseline characteristics. Methods: A multi-country community-based study combining a longitudinal follow-up from birth to 24 mo with a cross-sectional survey of children aged 18 to 71 mo. Study subpopulations had to have socio-economic conditions favourable to growth, low mobility and ]/ 20% of mothers practising breastfeeding. Individual inclusion criteria were no known environmental constraints on growth, adherence to MGRS feeding recommendations, no maternal smoking, single term birth and no significant morbidity. For the longitudinal sample, mothers and newborns were screened and enrolled at birth and visited 21 times at home until age 24 mo. Results: About 83% of 13 741 subjects screened for the longitudinal component were ineligible and 5% refused to participate. Low socioeconomic status was the predominant reason for ineligibility in Brazil, Ghana, India and Oman, while parental refusal was the main reason for non-participation in Norway and USA. Overall, 88.5% of enrolled subjects completed the 24-mo follow-up, and 51% (888) complied with the MGRS feeding and no-smoking criteria. For the cross-sectional component, 69% of 21 510 subjects screened were excluded for similar reasons as for the longitudinal component. Although low birth weight was not an exclusion criterion, its prevalence was low (2.1% and 3.2% in the longitudinal and cross-sectional samples, respectively). Parental education was high, between 14 and 15 y of education on average”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The journal presents a rich scientific and experimental study that has majored on the role of nutrition in growth of children. It has used a vast quantitative analysis to come up with a hypothesis about different nutrition and how they contribute to growth; the rapid the growth and development, the healthier the food. It goes ahead to give different child growth standards and the different types of nutrition that different government should implement by advocating for agricultural practices that are balanced. It uses growth and nutrition to present the standard child growth rate in relation to a balanced diet based on research done on different countries.

Strengths

The authors present a reliable experimental analysis that proves that good nutrition is a contributing factor to good health. It uses different nutritional experiments in children to gauge the growth rate. This is a report compiled for the WHO and thus makes the book an added advantage in terms of reliability and credibility in addressing issues related to nutrition and diet.

Weaknesses

The book is too wide and complex in its structuring. It presents complex quantitative analysis and multiple research studies and experiments that explore the aspect of growth and nutrition from a scientific point of view and in a generalized manner. The authors focus on growth and nutrition and touch almost nothing to do with fitness and exercise as contributor factors to growth and development.

Geissler, C., & Powers, H. J. (Eds.). (2017). Human nutrition. Oxford University Press.

Author’s Abstract

“The field of human nutrition has expanded hugely in recent years, to now encompass topics as diverse as nutritional genomics and food security. As appreciation for the importance of nutrition to human health and well-being grows, an understanding of the many aspects of the subject has never been more important. Written by a renowned team of international experts, Human Nutrition provides an authoritative, comprehensive resource for students of human nutrition and other health sciences, and a valuable source of information for everybody working in nutrition and related fields. The text opens with an exploration of the chemical characteristics of foods and nutrients, before moving on to discuss the physiology of food nutrition, micronutrients, and dietary requirements for different sections of the population. The text concludes with an assessment of the evidence base for a link between nutrient intake and disease risk, and a review of the broad discipline of public health nutrition”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The compilation of extensive research works by the authors has expressed intensive coverage on the issues of food, nutrition, and fitness. Moreover, the contribution of nutrition in prevention of different diseases as a mechanism of keeping healthy has been outlined. Different examples and extensive exploration on multiple topics have been made to see to it that nutrition and dietary requirements, and their contribution to public health have been addressed appropriately. It is a compilation of different works for different authors compiled by the authors, addressing such issues as food and nutrients, the nutrient structures, clinical structures, public health nutrition, and dietary requirements for specific groups among other researched topics. Different arguments have been presented based on different authors but all coverage at outlining that food is the ultimate source of good health for humanity.

Strength

The book has been designed to explore multiple topic on food, nutrition, and fitness and the way they contribute to personal and public health. The combination of different nutrition research reviews and ideas from different recognized expert researchers makes the book reliable ad credible. Moreover, one is able to explore vast topics within a single copy, enabling detailed comprehension of what food and nutrition can offer in terms of disease prevention and promoting general body health. Moreover, a wealth of figures has been used to reinforce key points outlined in different topics.

Weakness

The only weakness with this book is that it is too broad to cover for the reader and it relies on the ideas presented by other researchers with limited input from the main authors.

Hoeger, W. W., Hoeger, S. A., Hoeger, C. I., & Fawson, A. L. (2018). Lifetime of Physical Fitness and Wellness. Cengage Learning.

Author’s Abstract

“FITNESS AND WELLNESS, 13th Edition, equips students with the latest information, tools and guidelines to implement and maintain their own lifetime physical fitness and wellness program. Led by Werner W.K. Hoeger, the authors help students assess current behaviors, abandon negative habits and adopt healthy behaviors. Learning how to take control of their lifestyles and make changes to promote overall health and wellness, students make a personal connection to chapter content and can follow the text’s easy steps to begin the process of behavior change. Activities in every chapter enable students to put what they learn into practice through self-review and application activities. Online resources further students’ understanding through practice tests, behavior modification planning activities, online labs and behavior change progress tracking..

Reviewer’s Abstract

The presented studies are designed in such a manner that is easy to comprehend with each topic being categorized and elaborated in colourful headlines. In a bid to create a friendly atmosphere, the authors explore various different topics on physical fitness and wellness using illustrations and pictures to reinforce the ideas. The book also uses a simple language and design for easing comprehension of ideas. It explores different areas ranging from weight management, body composition, nutrition and wellness, physical fitness and wellness, to behavioural modification for health purposes among other areas. It presents different research studies conducted in the United States and different approaches in which physical fitness and nutrition have been used to improve the American health lifestyle.

Strength

The use of pictures and illustrations, as well as the simplified design has made it easy for readers to manoeuvre through all the provided topics and grasp the presented ideas. Secondly, it has managed to explore both physical fitness and nutrition as primary contributory factors to health. It also uses Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) to reinforce ideas after every topic is covered.

Weakness

The only weakness that I found in this book is the size of the font used since it is too small for all readers to work with.

In Chatterjee, S., In Jungraithmayr, W., & In Bagchi, D. (2018). Immunity and inflammation in health and disease: Emerging roles of nutraceuticals and functional foods in immune support. Academic Press.

Author’s Abstract

“Immunity and Inflammation in Health and Disease: Emerging Roles of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Immune Support provides a comprehensive description of the various pathways by which our immune system works, the signals that trigger immune response and how foods can be used to contain inflammation and boost immunity. This book addresses the role of dietary nutrients in playing a balancing role between host defense and immune support, focusing on new and vel nutraceuticals and functional foods. The first three sections address the various aspects of activation of the immune system. The fourth section deals with the ramifications of a robust and excessive inflammatory response. The final section is focused on the association between nutrition and immunity and how deficiencies in certain nutrients may affect immune-competence”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

This article provides a comprehensive description of the way the immune system works in people and other vertebrates. It has largely explored the concept of immune system and the way functional foods contribute to boost immunity and overall body health. The authors also outline how good nutrition can provide inflammation, which is a tool that the body uses to fight pathogens. Various diseases and how good nutrition works in providing good health and immunity on them have been explored. It is in the fifth section that the concept of immunity and nutrition is largely explored, while outlining how the deficiencies of certain nutrients can lead to poor immune-competence.

Strengths

It largely explores different diseases and various nutrients extracted from good foods that are meant for boosting immunity against various diseases. The explanations used are simple and detailed enabling easy comprehension. It goes ahead to use vivid descriptions and examples of how nutrition plays an active role in immunity.

Weaknesses

The book touches little on physical fitness as a contributor to good health, the authors major on the role of nutrition to good health with shallow exploration on how fitness can influence good health.

In De, P. S., In Taren, D., & In Bloem, M. W. (2017). Nutrition and health in a developing world.

Author’s Abstract

“This third edition reviews the epidemiology, policies, programs and outcome indicators that are used to determine improvements in nutrition and health that lead to development.  This greatly expanded third edition provides policy makers, nutritionists, students, scientists, and professionals with the most recent and up-to-date knowledge regarding major health and nutritional problems in developing countries. Policies and programs that address the social and economic determinants of nutrition and health are now gaining in importance as methods to improve the status of the most vulnerable people in the world.   This volume provides the most current research and strategies so that policy makers, program managers, researchers and students have knowledge and resources that they can use to advance methods for improving the public’s health and the development of nations.  The third edition of Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries takes on a new context where the word “developing” is now a verb and not an adjective”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The presented book is a third edition that takes a vast review of programs, policies, epidemiology, and different aspects that are used in improving health through nutrition, and how these aspects lead to personal development. The book has compiled up-to-date information on major health issues and different nutritional problems that different countries face, and how these countries handle them in relation to promoting good health among the populations. The authors go ahead to address the socioeconomic factors that deter good nutrition and the consequent health related problems that accrue. The book has gone ahead to explore current policies and strategies being used by different countries to address the issues of poor nutrition, and the holistic measures based on improving public health.

Strengths

The book focuses on latest policies and strategies being put in place to address problems related to food and nutrition has outlined well the factors that should be incorporated in promoting public health. The outlined policies act as a strong base for research study on relation of fitness and nutrition to health improvement approaches.

Weaknesses

The content is too long and addresses issues related to health and nutrition in a generalized way, focusing on developing countries as the main examples of nutrition problems that affect people. Moreover, the book has dwelt little on fitness as part of good health behaviour, as well as using generalized information with little scientific approaches on issues related to health and nutrition.

Ippolito, P. M. (2017). Advertising nutrition & health: evidence from food advertising, 1977-1997. DIANE Publishing.

Author’s Abstract

“This report reviews data collected by Commission staff on the types of claims made in 11,647 advertisements taken from a sample of eight leading magazines between 1977 and 1997. The primary focus of the study is on advertising claims related to health and nutrition, but it also examines other types of advertising claims. The report further reviews how nutrition-related claims in advertising changed under the various regulatory policies in place during these years. It is revealed that nutrition-related claims were a major focus of food advertising and an important focus of competition during the two-decade period covered by the report. Moreover, data indicate a sustained movement toward specific nutrient claims, such as “low fat,” in place of, or in addition, to more general nutrition claims, such as “nutritious.” The study finds that changes in advertising content appear to be associated with changes in regulatory rules and enforcement policies”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The report journal covers an important topic that relate to trade and nutrition. Advertisements are meant to foster competitive advantages for specific companies. However, based on the claims that adverts make on food and nutrition, the survey conducted by the researcher between 1977 and 1997 show that consumer behaviour in food consumption and diets has been affected by the claims made by these adverts. The role of the media in promoting good nutrition as well as its worsening have been explored, as well as the need to regulate misleading information of food and nutrition by the media through advertisements.

Strength

The article journal is based on actual experimental research conducted over a period of time and on known magazine companies; this makes the inferences made reliable.

Weakness

The conclusions made in the article rely on experimental inferences made and little scientific backup is used to verify the claims. This may affect the reliability of some of the information presented.

Jamnik, J., Jenkins, D. J., & El-Sohemy, A. (2018). Biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and nutritional status in individuals with positive celiac disease serology. Nutrition and health, 24(1), 37-45.

Author’s Abstract

“Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by damage to the intestinal mucosa and nutrient malabsorption in severe cases. However, it remains unclear whether nutrient deficiencies and other adverse health effects are prevalent in individuals with positive CD serology identified through screening studies. The objective was to determine whether biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and nutritional status differ between those with positive and negative CD serology identified in a screening study of Canadian adults”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The journal is rich in content and acts as good source in understanding the role of nutrition in improving autoimmunity of such diseases as the Celiac Disease. The conducted experimental research proves that nutrition and immunity are directly proportional as inadequacy of certain fat-soluble vitamins may weaken immunity leading to vulnerability to infections that could be prevented. It explores the role of nutrition in cardiometabolic health and the associative biomarkers. The article tries to outline the role that nutrient deficiencies play in contributing to celiac disease as an autoimmune disease, and presents the argument of autoimmunity based on nutritional value gained from different diets meant to improve prevention of Celiac Disease, as part of Cardio-metabolic health.

Strength

The article presents a scientific research based analysis that is reliable and directly links nutrition to the improvement of immunity. It is also specific in the objectives and hypothesis it aims at proving.

Weakness

The article is a rich source for relating the role of nutrition to health but the design of the paper is too scientific using a deep scientific jargon whereby some of the words have not been defined for comprehension of readers.

Jones, M., Maddox, J., Benavides-Espinoza, C., & Finnicum, P. (2017). Use of Fitness and Nutrition Applications by College Students. Missouri Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 27.

Author’s Abstract

“The Missouri Journal of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance is the official publication of the Missouri Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance and is published yearly. The Journal operates on a nonprofit basis and does not pay the contributing authors. The annual membership fee includes a subscription to the Journal. The Journal is sent to all members of the Association. Views and opinions expressed in the articles printed herein are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Editors or the official policy or position of the Missouri Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

In this research Journal, the use of fitness and nutrition applications by college students has been explored to determine how they contribute to health. It explores the aspects of fitness and nutrition and vital in the achievement of holistic health improvement. The journal presents a study and analysis on college students to determine the satisfaction level for the users in the use of health-related mobile applications (apps). The author’s present a study that proves that mobile apps are effective in promoting good health based on dietary and fitness guidance. Fitness and nutrition apps have been outlined as useful technological strategies to influence healthy exercise and dietary behaviours among the young generation.The presented argument is that these applications influence good dietary behaviour and influence continued monitoring of one’s BMI calling for continued burning of calories, or not based on the level of lipid accumulation in the body.

Strength

The journal presents both qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the conducted research experiment, as well as borrowed information from other studies to support the use of technology in terms of fitness and nutrition applications to influence good dietary and exercising behaviours which lead to eventual improvement of health through BMI regulation.

Weakness

The experiment is limited on how the use of the same applications could be viable to other groups of people such as the elderly and children, could impact viable BMI regulation.

Kokkinos, P., Myers, J., Franklin, B., Narayan, P., Lavie, C. J., & Faselis, C. (2018, March). Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health Outcomes: A Call to Standardize Fitness Categories. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings (Vol. 93, No. 3, pp. 333-336). Elsevier.

Author’s Abstract

“An inverse association between physical activity or fitness status and health outcomes has been reported by several cohort studies. When fitness categories are established in quartiles or quintiles based on the peak exercise capacity achieved, the association is graded. Although significant health benefits of increased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have been uniformly reported, the degree of protection has varied substantially between studies. This variability is likely due to varying methods used to define CRF categories, and not considering age, despite its strong effect on CRF. To ameliorate these methodological discrepancies, we propose standardized guidelines by which age-specific CRF categories should be defined”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

In this research journal the authors present a cohort study on the association between physical activity and the level of fitness status and how the two contribute to improved health per individual. The argument presented is that physical activities lead to physical fitness which in turn improves cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) putting to consideration the factor of age. The authors go ahead to recommend that physical fitness is a part of health improvement programs and each CRF program has to be designed with respect to age. The journal majors on physical activities and the way they contribute to Cardio-respiratory fitness for different categories of people. Despite different demonstrations on how physical activities should be conducted, a scientific elaboration of how it contributes to improved heath has been outlined.

Strength

The journal article uses illustrations to outline how different physical activities must be conducted for the sake of CRF fitness based on age categorization. It has also elaborated and defined different acronyms for ease in comprehension.

Weakness

The article explores physical activities and fitness as the main contributors to improved CRF health, however, little has been outlined to link fitness to nutrition as complementary factors towards improved health.

Kroeger, C. M., Trepanowski, J. F., Klempel, M. C., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Gabel, K., & Varady, K. A. (2018). Eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during 12 months of alternate-day fasting: an exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and health, 24(1), 5-10.

Author’s Abstract

Background:

Alternate-day fasting (ADF) has gained popularity in recent years. The diet consists of a “fast day” where an individual consumes 0-25% of their energy needs, alternated with a “feast day” where a person is permitted to eat ad libitum.

Aim:

This study examined eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during alternate day fasting.

Methods:

Obese participants ( n = 34) took part in 12 months of ADF and were grouped into a high (≥5%) or low-weight-loss (<5%) group post-treatment.

Results:

The high-weight-loss group demonstrated increased ( p = 0.04) fullness, decreased ( p = 0.03) hunger, increased dietary protein intake (15% to 20% of kcal, p = 0.04), and better adherence to fast-day calorie goals.

Conclusions:

Thus, individuals who achieve clinically significant weight loss with ADF demonstrate improved satiety, increased protein intake, and better adherence to fast-day calorie goals”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

This nutritional journal presents an experimental research study by introducing alternative-day fasting (ADF) and its contribution to alternative weight losers in terms of examined behaviour traits. The authors present n alternated experiment whereby consumers use ADF, where consumption of 0-25% of energy need is practiced, and consequent feast day whereby the person is allowed to eat ad libitum. The authors use obese participants to gauge weight loss for 12 months of ADF as a strategy for calorie control. Based on the presented research, this article acts as an important input of how nutritional control can be used as a useful mechanism in regulating body weight for patients with obese and other weight related problems. Different dietary nutrients have been outlined and the strategies to control their intake as a calorie controlling strategy using ADF.

Strength

The journal presents scientifically proven facts from an experimental analysis and this outlines the reliability of the presented conclusions on effectiveness of ADF in weight control. Simplified Statistical analysis has also been used to outline make the reader comprehend how the hypothesis was proven.

Weakness

The journal has limited support from other scientific researches to auger with the inferences made.

Kung’u, J. K., Pendame, R., Ndiaye, M. B., Gerbaba, M., Ochola, S., Faye, A., … & DeRegil, L. M. (2018). Integrating nutrition into health systems at community level: Impact evaluation of the communitybased maternal and neonatal health and nutrition projects in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Senegal. Maternal & child nutrition, 14, e12577.

Author’s Abstract

“Maternal under-nutrition and mortality remain high in several African countries. Key nutrition and health interventions improve maternal and birth outcomes. Evidence is scarce on how to strengthen health systems to ensure pregnant women and newborns are reached with these interventions. We conducted three quasi-experimental nonrandomized Community Based Maternal and Neonatal Health and Nutrition projects in regions of Ethiopia, Senegal, and Kenya to demonstrate how proven nutrition interventions could be integrated into health programs to improve knowledge and practices during pregnancy, birth, and postpartum. We evaluated impact on knowledge and practices related to maternal and neonatal care using logistic regression and repeated-measures models with districts as a fixed variable and adjusted for covariates”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The journal is designed as an experimental analysis that has conducted research to prove the role of good nutrition programs in improving public health at community level. Ethiopia being a developing country, has been presented as an ideal case study for the integration of nutrition programs at community level as the core strategy of improving public health care. The presented case study acts a good source of information on the impact that nutrition programs can have in improving immunity and reducing death rates for pregnant women and newborns.

Strength

The article presents a specific argument that good nutrition programs reduce death rates at community level for pregnant mothers, newborns, and children. The strength in this argument is that it has been backed up by proof from quasi-experimental research done on three different communities in Ethiopia.

Weakness

The article does not explore the concept of exercise and fitness as part of a good nutrition program. Moreover, the conducted research was generalized on all studies conducted on nutrition and health to make a conclusion instead of backing it up with researches done by other researchers.

Lee, H. S., Kwon, S. O., Yon, M., Kim, D., Lee, J. Y., Nam, J., … & Kwon, O. S. (2014). Dietary total sugar intake of Koreans: based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011. Journal of Nutrition and Health, 47(4), 268-276.

Author’s Abstract

“Dietary sugar intake, particularly added sugar and sugar-sweetened beverages, has received worldwide attention recently. Investigation of dietary behaviors may facilitate understanding of dietary sugar intakes of children and adolescents. However, the relationship between dietary sugar intake and dietary behaviors in the Korean population has not been investigated. Thus, this study aimed to estimate dietary sugar intake and food sources according to sex as well as examine the relationship of dietary sugar intake with frequent snacking and dietary patterns among Korean children and adolescents”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The article presents and experimental report with procedures, objectives, analysis, findings, and conclusion. The experimental survey used by the authors present reliable information that the government of Korea as well as other countries can use to determine the role of sugar intake in the rise of chronic diseases such as cancer, high blood pressure, and obesity among others. This is a report based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The main aim for the conduction of the presented research is to make an estimate of prevalence of chronic diseases among the populations contributed by high or low sugar intake

Strengths

Considering that this is a scientific report manned by the KNHANSE, this research survey presents verified and credible information in regards to sugar as an important dietary component that must be balanced to control the level of chronic diseases for the sake of promoting public health.

Weaknesses

The presented weaknesses for this survey article experimental report is that the applied approach lacks definitive survey design and operations and the conclusion made could be biased since only sample population was used to deduce the conclusion.

Meyer, N. L. (2014). FUEL PROPERLY. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal18(2), 23-29. doi:10.1249/fit.0000000000000021

Author’s Abstract

“This article will provide a thorough, yet general, nutritional workup of and guidelines for a novice runner in preparation for a half marathon. The neo-runner will be led through three stages of nutritional strategies, which include 1) weight loss and improving general nutrition, 2) periodized eating and fueling, and 3) race preparation and recovery”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The outlined nutritional journal resents a very holistic, detailed, and inclusive approach of outlining most of the aspects that relate to fitness and nutrition. The book has used an effective way of outlining how both exercise and healthy diets lead to a healthy body that can endure stress and strains, as well as promote body immunity. The reader is able to relate with the topic by following the exercise and diet program of the presented novice runner. The journal acts as an awareness platform to the reader on aspects that can promote good health while concentrating on fitness and nutrition as the main factors.

Strength

This journal has been designed to address all issues that relate to good health backed up by scientific proof and explanations. It has gone ahead to address nutrition and physical fitness using the case study of a neo-runner as the focal point for addressing health concerns and recovery from poor health habits through exercises and healthy diet. The use of picture illustrations has made it even easier for the reader to comprehend what is being addressed and how it should be handled.

Weakness

Despite the journal using a holistic approach to address health issues, it is limited to more illustrations than explanations. The use of scientific jargon is also too much for laymen but ideal for medical practitioners. Moreover, it has been designed to address health issues that relate to runners, dwelling too much on them and leaving such category as that of old people and young children aside.

Piot, P. (2008). Nutrition and health in developing countries. Springer Science & Business Media.

Author’s Abstract

“Nutrition and Health in Developing Countries, Second Edition was written with the underlying conviction that global health and nutrition problems can only be solved through a firm understanding of the different levels of causality and the interactions between the various determinants. This volume provides policy makers, nutritionists, students, scientists, and professionals with the most recent and up-to-date knowledge regarding major health and nutritional problems in developing countries. This greatly expanded second edition has new chapters relevant to humanitarian emergencies, including a case study of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, food in humanitarian relief, food policy, the emerging role of supermarkets in developing countries, homestead food production, aging, ethics, and the adverse impact of parental tobacco use on child health in poor families. These new chapters reflect the increasing complexity and changes that are occurring in developing countries”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The book presents a survey of public health trends in different countries, putting an emphasis on developing countries and comparing them to health systems in developed countries in relation to attributive factors from nutrition systems. A statistical analysis of efforts that the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been trying to improve health concerns in these countries has been presented from a historical perspective and the roles of food and nutrition in improving health concerns in most regions addressed. Different policies and strategies used by health agencies and departments in promoting public health have been explored. It also explores the devastating health problems in developing countries as a result of malnutrition and poor nutrition systems, and advocates for various measures to correct the situations.

Strengths

The book makes a qualitative and quantitative survey on how food and nutrition has contributed to healthy nations and improved economies of countries. A historical perspective, using illustrations to reinforce ideas, has been presented. Moreover, the main health consequences on countries that have poor food and nutrition systems outlined.

Weakness

Despite the book presenting nutrition and health concerns being faced today by both developed and developing countries, the presented research may have some outdated information which may have been addressed over the years in regards to improved health and nutrition

Rouse, T. I., Davis, D. P., & National Research Council (U.S.). (2004). Exploring a vision: Integrating knowledge for food and health : a workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Author’s Abstract

“Centuries of scientific advances in agriculture have increased the quantity, quality, and variety of our food supply. Food in the United States is abundant and affordable, incomes are at record levels, nutrition and health knowledge is at an all-time high. Yet many Americans are not eating a proper diet. The result is an obesity epidemic that contributes to rising healthcare costs from increased rates of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and several cancers”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

In this journal, the authors presents an extensive research on how knowledge for food can be used to create a system and consumer behaviour that promotes good health. The journal presents a workshop summary on how food supply is abundant and how increased income levels have contributed to better health among the populations as a result of consumption of healthy foods. However, the journal presents poor diet and poor eating habits as an increased trend in the US despite the abundant supply of food and most Americans being able to feed themselves, leading to prevalence of such chronic diseases as heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes among others. The article aims at creating food and nutrition awareness via a research based approach that identifies the gap for healthy eating habits among Americans. .

Strength

The use of a research case study in the United States has made the article very effective in outlining nutrition, food availability, and food quality issues and the way they relate to better public health. The case study has been reliably designed to present argument that despite most Americans being able to afford food, health concerns have continued to rise. It presents different statistics and scientific arguments to explain why there is need to improve food and nutrition as a strategy for curbing the rise of chronic diseases in the US.

Weakness

One limitation is that the presented study has little exploration on issues relating to lack of exercise and fitness as a contributory factor to the increased rise of nutrition related diseases. The inferences made from the research have also been generalized to explain issues affecting other parts of the world leading to the notion of bias.

Satyaraj, E., & Morley, J. (2014). Interaction of Nutrition and Immunity. Nutrition-Infection Interactions and Impacts on Human Health, 17-38. doi:10.1201/b17311-3

Author’s Abstract

“Nutrition and infection are often at a crossroads, interacting with each other and influencing human health. Infection is a major health problem and nutritional deficiency plays a significant role in increasing the risk of infection. Nutrition–Infection Interactions and Impacts on Human Health present state-of-the-art evidence on nutrition–infection interactions and their impact on health and disease”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

This book makes a detailed research on the role that good nutrition and fitness play in promoting body immunity against different diseases. In the book, the authors make an effort to relate food, dieting, nutrition, and exercise to increased immunity. The book has gone ahead to present different types of nutrition and the way they improve overall health in terms of strengthening the body’s immunity against diseases. It also explores how different poor diets cause such diseases as obesity, cancer, and metabolic deregulation among others. It goes ahead to major on nutrition-infection interactions and how they impact overall immunity in the body. Despite the article exploration of the relationship between nutrition and immunity, the book takes an interesting focus in explaining how immunity in the body works and the role of different nutrients from foods to boosting immunity.

Strength

After assessing the book, I found that it has very detailed explanations that are backed up by simple examples and demonstrations; this makes the book easy to read and understand the contents, as clear definitions are outlined too. Both authors seem to understand the role of nutrition in promoting health and immunity and explore the topic in depth.

Weakness

There is need for concern since one limitation is that the book has focused majorly on nutrition and its relation to immunity, and dedicates less arguments and teachings on fitness and its relation to promoting immunity.

Sharkey, B. J., & Gaskill, S. E. (2013). Fitness & health.

Author’s Abstract

In this book, the authors have made a recommendable research on issues related to fitness and health. The book explores issues related to health and fitness and the way these contribute to physical fitness, mental and cognitive health, and general health of the body. The authors have majored on the role of fitness in promoting psychological and physical fitness and the overall results of the aspects in improving performance. The book is designed to teach philosophy of fitness using vivid explanations, examples, and picture demonstrations of physical fitness programs.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The book presents a philosophical point of view on the essentiality of maintaining good nutrition and fitness as part of basic health promotion strategies. Another argument has been presented on the importance of exercise in developing and maintaining neuromotor fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness, and the medicinal purpose that good nutrition fetch when combined with physical exercises in promoting good health in adults. This holistic literature has addressed the concepts of good health with topic ranging from environment and performance, injury and illness prevention, how physical fitness is essential in strenuous activities, and the role of good nutrition i promoting general health.

Strengths

Based on the book’s content, its strength is that the authors have used coloured picture demonstrations of fitness exercises. Moreover, it presents the philosophy of fitness and the way it improves both physical and mental health for people of all ages.

Weakness

Despite the advantage of detailed information on fitness and nutrition in relation to health, the book is excessively long, meaning that it is hard to go through all the pages, or rather it would take a lot of time input in its coverage. Secondly, some fitness related terms have not been defined despite their continued usage in most pages. I also thought that the book was too scientific, making it hard for layman readers or children to understand some of its contents.

Smith, C. J., Hendricks, C. M., & Bennett, B. S. (2013). Fitness and Nutrition. Redleaf Press.

Author’s Abstract

“During the preschool and kindergarten years, children begin spending more time engaging in physical activity and exploring new foods. Help children learn how to take care of their bodies as they build a foundation for healthy, active lives with this Fitness and Nutrition curriculum. Children will learn about motor development, fitness and physical activity, rest and relaxation, food choices and eating habits, and avoiding germs when eating”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

As experienced nutrition and fitness experts, the authors are aware of different advantages that nutrition and fitness fetch to holistic health. The authors have done a comprehensive research approach with detailed statistical and picture enabled illustrations. Comparative analyses between men and women in term of physical fitness, nutrition, and general health have been presented from a quantitative point of view. The presented argument is that nutrition and physical exercise are inseparable in promotion of good health and fitness. The emphasis of this book is to take the reader through a fitness and nutrition curriculum and how this curriculum helps in promoting general health in children. Vast exploration has been made on physical activities, motor development on children, eating habits, food choices, sanitation, and rest and relaxation as part of good eating habits.

Strength

The strength of this book is that it has explored six fitness and nutrition topics in a manner that clearly outlines the detriments of poor nutrition and physical fitness. It has also systematically covered fitness and good eating habits as most ideal ways to promote good health. Different theoretical perspectives backed by scientific explanations have been used to prove that nutrition and fitness are essential in promoting body health. The use of pictures in demonstrating health, exercise, and nutrition and how they are all related, using statistical analysis to outline real life cases has made the content reliable.

Weakness

One weakness of this book is that it has primarily majored on children’s health and growth, taking little interest in health issues related to adults and how they are affected. it also uses a lot of scientific analysis in outlining health issues in relation to diet and fitness, making the content quite complex for the readers.

Watson, R. R., Preedy, V. R., & Zibadi, S. (2013). Alcohol, nutrition, and health consequences. Humana Press.

Author’s Review

“Chronic alcohol use is associated with heart, liver, brain, and other organ pathology.  Alcohol is a drug of abuse and a caloric food and it causes poor intake and absorption of nutrients, thus playing a major role in many aspects of clinical consequences. Alcohol use lowers consumption of fruit and vegetables, lowers tissue nutrients, and, in some cases, requires nutritional therapy by clinicians.  Alcohol, Nutrition, and Health Consequences will help the clinician define the causes and types of nutritional changes due to alcohol use and also explain how nutrition can be used to ameliorate its consequences. Chapters present the application of current nutritional knowledge by physicians and dieticians”.

Reviewer’s Abstract

The books presents an extensive exploration of qualitative and quantitative experimental researches done on alcohol as a drug and calorie food that many people take as a supplement to different diets that they have. The health consequences of taking and abusing alcohol have been addressed. The argument presented is that alcohol tends to lower the consumption of different nutrition dietaries such as fruits, tissue nutrients, and vegetables. Alcohol has been explored as a contributory factor in dietary changes for different people and the consequential alcohol related metabolite damage due to nutritional changes have been explored.

Strengths

The book uses scientific research experiments to back arguments presented on the role of alcohol in influencing dietary changes. Secondly, different ideas from reliable researchers have been pooled together to present a conclusive role of alcohol in nutritional health metabolite damages.

Weakness

Too much scientific jargon and experiments have been used making the book unsuitable for laymen in understanding basic concepts of nutrition and health.

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Kroeger, C. M., Trepanowski, J. F., Klempel, M. C., Barnosky, A., Bhutani, S., Gabel, K., & Varady, K. A. (2018). Eating behavior traits of successful weight losers during 12 months of alternate-day fasting: an exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition and health, 24(1), 5-10.

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Lee, H. S., Kwon, S. O., Yon, M., Kim, D., Lee, J. Y., Nam, J., … & Kwon, O. S. (2014). Dietary total sugar intake of Koreans: based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008-2011. Journal of Nutrition and Health, 47(4), 268-276.

Meyer, N. L. (2014). FUEL PROPERLY. ACSM’s Health & Fitness Journal, 18(2), 23-29. doi:10.1249/fit.0000000000000021

Piot, P. (2008). Nutrition and health in developing countries. Springer Science & Business Media.

Rouse, T. I., Davis, D. P., & National Research Council (U.S.). (2004). Exploring a vision: Integrating knowledge for food and health : a workshop summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Satyaraj, E., & Morley, J. (2014). Interaction of Nutrition and Immunity. Nutrition-Infection Interactions and Impacts on Human Health, 17-38. doi:10.1201/b17311-3

Sharkey, B. J., & Gaskill, S. E. (2013). Fitness & health.

Smith, C. J., Hendricks, C. M., & Bennett, B. S. (2013). Fitness and Nutrition. Redleaf Press.

Watson, R. R., Preedy, V. R., & Zibadi, S. (2013). Alcohol, nutrition, and health consequences. Humana Press.