University of Phoenix Material

**Sampling**** Methodologies**

**Research** the sampling methodologies used in health care research covered in the textbook this week, and in other readings and resources.** **

**Review **the Methods Map Visual Search Tool from Week One to help guide your research.

**Part 1**

**List **and** provide **a brief description of three types of probability and non-probability sampling methodologies (25 to 50 words each).

Probability Sampling Methodologies |
Non-probability Sampling Methodologies |

1. Cluster Sampling. Cluster Sampling is a tool that is used when it isn’t possible to maintain information concerning or pertaining to a population as a whole group. Cluster sampling uses groups, chunks, or segments of a population to gather information and general ideas. “The purpose of cluster sampling is to sample economically while retaining the characteristics of a probability sample” (Zeepedia, n.d.). | 1. Snowball Sampling. Snowball Sampling is a recruiting technique used by researchers to be able to gain participants to conduct their studies and tests. The advantage to this type of sampling is that the researcher(s) have the opportunity to use their judgments to select participants to partake in their tests and studies. |
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2. Stratified Sampling. Stratified Sampling is a method used by researchers that involves a technique that creates divisions or divides the total population into subclasses in order to complete the sampling process and draw conclusions pertaining to that population. It too incorporates strata. “The strata is formed based on some common characteristics in the population data” (The Economic Times, 2018). | 2. Expert Sampling. Expert Sampling uses the knowledge of professionals within that perspective field to conduct a sample. In these instances, an abundance of knowledge is needed. “This sort of sampling is useful when the research isexpected to take a long time before it provides conclusiveresults or where there is currently a lack of observationalevidence” (Etikan et al., 2016, p.3). |

3. Simple Random Sampling (SRS). Simple Random Sampling (SRS) is a sampling technique or method where every sample included has an even chance or likelihood of being chosen. When this occurs, everyone involved the receives the same and an equal probability of being selected. | 3. Convenience Sampling. Convenience Sampling is considered to be the most commonly used type of nonprobability sampling. The basis of this sample involves seeking out individuals within a population that are easily accessible to include within the sample. Thus, giving researchers an easy, inexpensive, and a larger pool to draw participants from for their research. |

**Answer **the following prompt in 50 to 100 words:

**Part 2**

**Explain**the difference between probability and non-probability sampling methodologies.

**List** and **describe** five types of data collection tools or instruments used in research (50 to 100 words each).

Data Collection Tools or Instruments
| Description of Data Collection Tools or Instruments |
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1.Focus Groups
| A focus group is a facilitated group interview with individuals that all have something in common. This group of people are assembled to discuss and participate within a guided discussion about a topic or product to provide feedback about their experience. This type of data collection gathers information from a compensation of different perspectives and opinions. The responses from this collection are coded into categories and are analyzed thematically (University of Minnesota, 2018). |

2. Ethnographies, Oral History and Case Studies
| This type of data collection involves studying a single phenomenon, it examines individuals within their natural setting. This type of collection uses a combination of techniques, such as observations, interviews and surveys. Ethnography is a more holistic approach to evaluation than the others (University of Minnesota, 2018). |

3. Interviews
| Interviews are a great way to collect data for research. They can be conducted either in person or on the phone. Interviews are normally conducted one on one. They can be formally (structured), semi-structured, or informally conducted. Questions during the interview should be clear, focused, and encourage open-ended responses ( University of Minnesota, 2018). |

4. Surveys or Questionnaires
| A survey is the measure of opinions or experiences of a group of people through the asking of questions. A questionnaire is a set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, put together for the purposes of a survey or a statistical study. (SurveyMonkey, N.D.). |

5.Observation
| Observations allow for the study of the dynamics of a situation, frequency counts of target behaviors, or other behaviors as indicated by needs of the evaluation. This type of data collection is a good source of providing information about a particular group. This type of data collection can produce both qualitative and quantitative data ( University of Minnesota, 2018). |

**Part 3:**

**Identify** three types of statistical analyses used in research and provide an example of each.

Type of Statistical Analysis
| Define the statistical analysis (25 to 50 words each) |
Example of statistical analysis |
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1. t-tests | A statistical hypothesis that is used to analyze the means of the sets of data through statistical examination. There are two primary types of t-tests: unpaired and paired. Unpaired t-test are used when the variables are not directly related to each other. In paired t-tests, the variables are relative to each other (Dickter, D. 2006). | Hypothesis that a group of students who get less than five hours of sleep have significantly lower exam scores than a group of students who get the required eight hours of sleep. After each group’s test scores are recorded, the data is calculated by a special formula to determine if the hypothesis is true or null. |

2.correlational analysis | Correlation analysis is a statistical method that evaluates how accurately two variables are related to each other. This type of analysis is used to determine the connection between two variables. A correlation between the two variables can result in a positive or negative coefficient to determine the similarity of the relative values (Dickter, D. 2006). | Hypothesis that people who make a lot of money drive more expensive cars than average wage earners. Correlation is best used with quantifiable data and the result of a correlation is called a correlation coefficient. The two variables can either be positively (+1 or higher) related to each other or negatively (-1 or lower). |

3.regression analysis | Regression analysis is a method used to relate variables to each other by determining patterns to the data that is collected. Regression analysis allows predictions to be made based from the data that is recorded (Dickter, D. 2006). | An individual who has steadily been gaining weight over the past several months can figure approximately how much he or she may weigh in five years if they continue to gain weight at the same rate that they are currently gaining. |

**Cite** at least 3 peer-reviewed, scholarly, or similar references to support your assignment. Use the resources in the University Library to ensure you have correctly cited your references.

**Format** your reference section and references used in your prompts and chart according to APA guidelines. Include a title page at the beginning of your worksheet.

**Click** the Assignment Files tab to submit your assignment.

References

Dickter, D. (2006). Basic statistical analysis. In F. Leong & J. Austin The psychology research handbook: A guide for graduate students and research assistants (pp. 293-305). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: 10.4135/9781412976626.n19

Economic Times. (2018). Definition of ‘stratified sampling’. Retrieved from https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/stratified-sampling

Zeepedia. (n.d.). Types of probability sampling. Retrieved from http://www.zeepedia.com/read.php?types_of_probability_sampling_systematic_random_sample_research_methods&b=71&c=28

Etikan, I., Musa, S., Alkassim, R. (2016). Comparison of Convenience Sampling and Purposive Sampling.

*American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics. Vol. 5, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-4.* doi: 10.11648/j.ajtas.20160501.11

University of Minnesota. (2018). Data Collection Techniques. Retrieved from https://cyfar.org/data-collection-techniques

SurveyMonkey. (N.D.). Survey vs questionnaire: What’s the difference?. Retrieved from https://www.surveymonkey.com/mp/survey-vs-questionnaire/