Human Computer interface

Human Computer interface


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Many formal specification techniques have been applied to many aspects of computer software development. Their main advantage is that they allow a designer to give specification of a system externally without the need to specify how it can be implemented internally (Jacko & Stephanidis, 2008). Human interface helps humans to receive information in a generally comfortable way through modern technology. One of the most common designs to increase human- computer interface by software designers is the haptic feedback (Jacko & Stephanidis, 2008 pg 114).


Often referred to as “haptics”, it is the incorporation of the sense of touch in a user interface design to relay information to the last person. Development of the various kinds will continue hence giving room for the provision of more lifelike interfaces with virtual objects and environments (shikapize, 2009). Haptic feedback has been having an extremely growing role in technology that assists human beings. For instance, we have the haptic mouse that allows users to read a computer monitor by feeling elements or buttons mainly by people with visual impairments.

When we talk about haptic interface, it refers to relatively more sophisticated devices. While the user manipulates the end effector or handle, on a haptic device, encoder output is passed to an interface at a high rate. In this type, the information is processed to find the position of the end effector. For instance, when simulating the feel of a rigid wall with a force feedback type of haptic feedback joystick, motors within the joy stick apply forces that simulate the feel of encountering the wall. As the user moves the joy stick to penetrate the wall, motors apply a force that resists the penetration (Shikapize, 2009).


Haptic devices allow users to touch, feel, and manipulate objects found in virtual environments and three-dimensional objects mainly tele-operated systems. Also, haptic devices track user’s physical manipulations or input and give real touch sensations that are coordinated with monitor output (shikapize, 2009). This can be seen in most computer interface devices that are used commonly such as mice and joysticks. These are input-only devices meaning that it provides no manual feedback. The information in this case flows in one direction from the user to the effector (shikapize, 2009).

Haptic feedback is mainly used in video games. Through tactile feedback it has enabled video games to be more realistic. It has set the video games designers to continue developing and make games growing and more improved. Through three important points that haptic feedback improves video games (shikapize, 2009).

First, it gives improved usability in that haptic devices creates fulfilling multi-modal impacts that improve usability by involving touch, sight and more so sound. It improves usability more by engaging the user’s senses fully. Second, it has enhanced realism by ways such as engaging and exciting the senses and allowing the user to feel the touch of the application.


It is more accurate to discuss of personal remembrances rather than of personal storage space, since individuals have several extremely different types. The main division is among sensory, short-term and long-term memories. Each of these memories further contains subsystems. There is a personal nerve storage space for each feeling, popular (visual), echoic (auditory), etc. Some also distinguish a “working memory” made up of personal professional, phonological pattern and Visio-spatial subsystems (Harris, 2006).

The short term memory has a restricted potential, a fact that must be considered in the design of the connections. If several places, details must be at the same time saved in the temporary storage during the work process, this can outcome in excess storage, resulting in low performance, high mistake rate and pressure (Shneiderman, 2011). It is of this reason important that the interface can show all appropriate decision details in similar.


Human-Computer interface is naturally asynchronous. Performance of user instructions and up-dates of the information shown by the outcome program take time. Due to the naturally asynchronous personality of Human-Computer Interaction, the customer may err about the program state; either because commands have not been implemented yet, or because the display has not been updated (Shneiderman, 2011).

The program may not offer enough details to figure out the system sate, or the customer may understand program outcome incorrectly. Most of the specification of entertaining programs is involved with the relation between customer feedback and the details proven to the customer. For example, when modifying a written text, the present (internal) condition of the writing should be shown to the customer, and customer feedback should cause changes to the writing (Shneiderman, 2011).


It involves an approach to interactive system development that focuses mainly in creating functional and usable systems. In user centered design process all the development work proceeds with the user as the center of focus hence the name. It follows a series of well-defined methodologies and techniques for analysis and design and evaluation of mainstream hardware, software and web interfaces (Shneiderman, 2011).

User centered design process is an iterative process where it consists of processes. The first process or step is analysis. It involves the definition of the vision, goals, objectives or the image of the final design and the analysis of the challenges and constraints. The second step of design is the incorporation of design concepts, navigation design, detailed design, functional online prototypes. The third step is evaluation where it involves design walkthoughs, heuristic evaluation, guideline reviews and usability testing. The second last step is implantation and finally deployment (Shneiderman, 2011).


Individual movement research performs an essential part in human computer interaction (HCI), for connecting the information gap between people and pcs. Currently, due to the large increase of pcs in our everyday life, HCI has become crucially important (Harris, 2006). Traditionally, key pad and computer mouse have unquestionably main role in HCI. However, with the fast improvement of processing, interaction, and display technology, such connections may become a bottleneck in programs that rely on heavy connections of users with machines because of the unnaturalness of the connections (Harris, 2006). Thus, scientists have recently tried to remove this HCI bottleneck by creating more natural ways of connections. With this inspiration, human movement evaluation and human action identification have been subjects of research for years.

Additionally, monitoring human whole body parts and recuperating the actual 3D human framework are seriously useful for medical diagnostics systems, entertainment industry, and research of fitness performance. The ability to automatically observe human activities in security-sensitive areas such as air-ports, borders, and financial institutions is useful to the protection services as well (Harris, 2006).


In conclusion, human computer interactions have played a major role in taking technology this far. Through research and the analysis such as data mining the world is able to get more sophisticated technology and hence be able to make life easier.


Harris, G. F. (2006). Human motion analysis: current applications and future directions. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Jacko, J. A., & Stephanidis, C. (2008). Human – computer interaction theory and practice. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Shneiderman, B. (2011). Designing the user interface: strategies for effective human-computer-interaction (3rd ed.). Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley Longman.

shikapize, c. (2009). Haptic feedback interfaces (Revised. ed.). London: Prepared for the European Commission’s Telematics Applications Programme [by TFPL

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