Human Development

Age group physical cognitive 4.Emotional-social 5. Theories and Theorists 6. Usual Child illnesses 7. anticipatory guidance and teaching by nurse
Infancy and Toddlerhood (2yrs) weight and height increasesBetter brain responses to stimulationProgress in motor skills, such as walking and graspingPerceptual and sensory abilities develop Ability to learn language develops during adult interactionsCommunication progress ranges from crying, cooing and bablingProgresses from few words talk to sentence constructionAbility to think using the object permanence concept Self-conscious responses with more complex reactions developBehaviour synchronization on parents beginsParental encouragement promotes the development of independent behaviour, e.g feeding, toilet training, and dressingA secure emotional attachment to parents developsEase and ability to relate with playmates is cultivated Jean Piaget: Sensorimotor stage theoryEriskson: Trust versus mistrust, and Autonomy versus doubt theories Common cold,Respiratory syncytial virusGastroenteritisHand-foot-mouth disease Need for ample sleep, fever checks, need for balanced dietLimit TV watching for more than 2 hrs and give time to talk to promote language developmentGiving room to do age-appropriate chores
Early childhood: 2-6 yrs Brain is 90% of adult weight and develops fastestPhysical strength increment, as well as body proportionsAthletic skills developsMotor skills such as writing developsGender differences emerge Begins using mental and symbol representationsIdeas on the world began being illogicalRapid development of language abilitiesMetacognition develops Extensive grammatical knowledge is formed Awareness of gender roles is formedRecognition for activities leads to fast ability to initiate new activitiesComplex imaginations form on playing alone or with othersSocialization increases Erikson: Autonomy vs doubt, and Initiative vs guiltPiaget: preoperational stage theory Chickenpox, measles, diarrhoea, vomiting Need for ample play time and sleep, emphasis on hygieneListen to child fearsInstil discipline
Middle Childhood (7-9 yrs) Slow brain growth is realizedPhysical growth slowsAthletics and fine skills develop Proficiency in Bilingualism developsUnderstanding logical principles developsMemory capacity and mnemonics develops Peers become significant as dependence shifts from parents to friendsIncreased awareness to outside worldMotivational system revolve around affiliation, achievements, and competenceDevelopment of interpersonal strategies Piaget: preoperational stageErikson: Initiative vs Guilt theoryIndustry versus inferiority theory Roseola, flu, slap-cheek, Need for emotional support, parents giving them space, Give room for socialization
Late Childhood(10-12 yrs) Rising hormonal changes and pubertyGirls gain weight and heightDistinct gender and physical differences appear, boys grow testes and breast Personality development is impacted Abstract thinking is developed from logical thoughtsMemory skils improve and better planning is developedGrowth of long term knowledge base Sexuality and cognitive functioning develop and starts challenging personalityDivision of peer groups to cliquesGender stereotype awareness developsStrengthened social conventions and appreciation of moral rules Piaget: Concrete operational Stage theoryErikson: Industry versus Inferiority theory Common cold, malaria, slap cheek Close attention needed, need to control temper tentrums
Early Adolescent (13-15yers) Body growth in height and weightIncreased motor performanceBoys ejaculate as girls menstruate Operational reasoning develops; capacity for abstract and scientific thoughts developsIdealistic and critical thinking is formedUnderstanding irony and sarcasm is developed Identity crisis emergesEmergence of psychological disordersSexual orientation emergesFriendship influence intimacy and loyaltyConformity to peer pressure is irresistible Piaget: Formal operational stageErikson: Identity versus confusion Attention defficit disorder;Asthma. Autism, common cold, Emotional management; anger,
Late Adolescence (16-19 yrs) End of physical growth for boysDeeper voice and facial hair develops in boys, grow taller tooGirls grow wider in the hips, breast development continuesMotor performance for girls peak Formal logic in reasoning improvesFluid intelligence emerges and ability to cope with different problemsUnderstanding of rules and integrating them to sense is developed Starts identifying with adult worldDevelopment of dating processConflict with parents due to increased assertiveness and lack of self-disciplineDecline in cliquesIntroduction to the world of work and career planning Piaget: Formal operational stageErikson: Identity versus confusion   Emphasis on school and the need to guide on peer associations
Early adulthood(20-40) yrs Increased physical functioningChange in body shape; decrease in lean muscle massOrgan system efficiency decreases graduallySexual responsiveness remains highChange in physical appearance; wrinkled face and grey hair Dialectical and practical thinking developsShort-term memory heightensDevelopment of wisdom expertiseIncreased vocabulary and knowledge Identity and intimacy peaksFriendship becomes an important role Need for achievement often met through personality and satisfaction in workAdditional maturation achieved Piaget: Formal operational stage, Neo-piagetian postformal stage   Guidance on career, Emotional connection needed but space is important
Middle Adulthood (40-65) Gradual appearance and body changes; shape and sizeChanges in vision and hearing capabilitiesHealth issues arise Decline in fluid intelligenceKnowledge about the world increases as novelty decreasesShort term memory remainsCognitive skills and intellectual growth is maintained due to interaction with social class Occurrence if mid-life crisis in some casesStabilization of personal traitsSatisfaction of marital state as children move away from homeLikelihood of facing age discriminations Piaget: Formal Operational stage Neo-piagetian postformal stageErikson: Generativity versus Stagnation    
Late Adulthood (65 yrs and above) Slow brain functioning and brain gets smaller in sizeBody weakness and change in physical appearanceLoss in visual and hearingDecreased immune systemSexual functioning affected but pleasure remains Decline in information reception and interpretationDecline in short-term memory abilitiesPhilosophical and spiritual interests growSkills based on experience increase Abilities to cope with stress and reduction of negative emotions increaseSubjective sense of well-being heightens Levinson and Neugarten: older adults cognitive theories    

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