C.P.U Components and Architecture

C.P.U Components and Architecture



C.P.U Components and Architecture

The computer system is the versatile automatic digital electronic device accepting data processing it to produce elaborate information. Computers consist of hardware and software, the hard ware part of computer systems includes all the physically tangible parts of the computer systems. The software consist of the intangible parts of the computing systems mostly the system and the application software.

The hardware components of the computer system include the memory, I/O devices, and the C.P.U.The I/O devices include the components, which input the data in the computer systems for processing to give genuine outputs. They include the keyboards the and the user interface gadgets such as mouse used for manipulating data on the computer screen.

The output devices are used to display the processed information for the computer memory. The output devices include the monitors or the visual display unit. The central processing unit has three units, which help in the processing of the relevant data such as the arithmetic logic unit, control unit, and the memory including the signals (Marr et al, 2015).

Architecture of the C.P.U

C.P.U central processing unit

The central processing unit is the basic functional unit of the computer systems acting as the brain of the computer systems. The central processing unit has three basic units the Arithmetic unit helping in performing arithmetic fuctions.The logical unit performing the logical operations in the within the computing functions. The main memory used for holding the identity of the process and the data while the processing is taking place and storing the already processed information awaiting display.

Main memory

The main memory has the registers holding the data already processed and the ones waiting processing. When the data uploads in the computer systems, the data resides in the memory, which again holds the process transpiring on the data. The memory holds the information awaiting display on the visual display unit.

Control unit

The control units include electric pulses, which enable the movement of data controls within the central processing unit. The pulse flow starts from the input device to memory, arithmetic logic unit to the output device such as the visual display unit.

Arithmetic logic unit

Performs the arithmetic and logic functions and their complement s within the central processing unit where the logical operations include NAND, OR, X-OR and NOT operations. The arithmetic unit performs arithmetic functions including all the arithmetic operators. After all the arithmetic and logical operation are finished, the processed information is stored in the main memory to be delivered to the display devices for analysis.

Components of the computer memory

There are various components in the computer memory

PBC (printed circuit board)

It is the green board holding the memory chip made of several layers. Each layer contains traces and circuitry to control the movement of data. High quality memory modules use more layers and the spaces between the traces (Smallwood et al, 2014).

Traces (internal trace layer)

It includes the traces as roads that data travels on showing the width and the curvature as well as the distance between affects both the speed and reliability.

Contact fingers

Contact fingers helps in plugging the memory chips into the module. The contacts can be either tin or gold. Gold is better conductor than tin but it is very expensive.

Chip packaging

It is the metal coating material around the actual silicon existing in various types such as the DIP, SOJ, and TSOP and CSP.

Chip stacking

It is the most important module of the memory components involving the stacking of chips on top of one another internally or externally within the computer central processing unit.

RAM (Random access memory)

It is also the random access memory or the main memory accessed randomly without touching the preceding bytes. It is the most common memory found in the computers and other electronic devices such as printers. There are different types of RAMs the DRAM and the SRAM, which differs in the ways by which they hold data. DRAM requires being refreshed thousands of times per second while SRAM does not need to be refreshed making it faster than DRAM.


The cache memory is a CPU memory that a computer system can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. The memory is connect directly with the CPU chip, or placed on a separate chip that has a separate bus interconnected with the Central processing unit with the computer system.


Registers is a group of flip-flops which are capable of storing data inform of set and reset states or the on and off state. The flip-flops are made from digital electronic gates with two states on and off state.

Data Bus in the C.P.U

A data bus is a computer subsystem allowing the transfer of data from one component to another on the motherboard or system board or two computers. The transmission of data takes place to and from the computer memory. The transfer of data transpires from the central processing unit (C.P.U) to other computer components. The data bus can be 32 bit or 64 bit making the data bus handle more data making the data bus handle more data. There are internal and the external types of data buses. The internal data bus called the local bus connects all the components on the motherboard. The external data bus connects all the peripheral devices to the motherboard.


Marr, M. D., Klein, M. D., McKelvie, S. J., & Frink, D. L. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,032,197. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Smallwood, P., Lotfy, M., & Sanders, M. (2014). Introducing the CPU and assembly language concepts via a model instruction set architecture. Journal of Computing Sciences in Colleges30(2), 35-43.