Obesity

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obesity

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OBJECTIVES

DefinitionASSESMENT OF LEARNINGLEARNING THEORYIntroductionEpidemiologyEtiologyRISK FACTORSMANAGEMENT

Assessment of learning

The assessment of the emotional readiness of the target audience will be through assessment of the anxiety level of individuals in the audience, the availability of a support system for individuals with obesity within the target audience. In addition to these, there will be an assessment of their motivation to learn more about the subject matter, their frame of mind and risk taking behavior concerning the subject of obesity. This will be achieved using an interactive session when the target audience can answer specific questions aimed at assessment of their emotional readiness to learn (scott & spouse, 2013).

Learning theory

The learning theory relatable to this population is the theory of constructivism by Jean Piaget and John Dewey. This is because in the context of obesity as a subject matter, learners will construct knowledge for themselves from an interaction between their experiences and their ideas, for example, their experiences on how obesity has affected them health wise or in social circles (Allender, Rector, & Warner, 2013). .

INTRODUCTION

Obesity is a nutritional disease defined as a state of increased body weight because of accumulation of adipose tissue of sufficient magnitude to cause adverse effects in terms of health. The causes of obesity are complex but relate to changes in diet, physical activity, emotions and habits. Increased consumption of fatty food and lack of physical activity are some of the societal changes that have led to obesity in the united states of America (Kumar, Abbas, & Aster, 2013).

There are several health risks associated with obesity including atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, asthma and sleep apnea. These medical conditions have long-term consequences and lead to increased morbidity and mortality due to obesity (kumar, abbas, & aster, 2013). In addition, obesity reduces the quality of life as it makes it difficult for an individual to undertake normal daily activity.

TARGET AUDIENCE

The target audience for this paper will be children and teenagers of school going age and adults of middle age. The target audience in the community is spread within various age groups since obesity is a problem affecting both children and adults, and none of these age groups is resistant to the fatal consequences of obesity as a nutritional disease. The availability and easy access of fatty fast food and limited physical activity applies to both age groups and they therefore provide a good target audience for health promotion and interventions aimed at reducing the levels of obesity in the community (Allender, Rector, & Warner, 2013).

EPIDEMIOLOGY

In the 21st century, obesity has reached epidemic levels in the united states of america. Obesity is currently prevalent among individuals of all ages, race and gender. It is a disease of both children and adults and morbidity and mortality is commonly due to the diseases associated with obesity, especially coronary artery disease, hypertension and sleep apnea. The center for disease control and prevention (CDC) and the journal of american medical association (JAMA) provide statistics, which show that more than a third (34.9% or 78.6 millions) of american adults and 17% of youth are battling obesity (ogden et al, 2014).

RISK FACTORS

Often due to dysregulation of caloric intake and energy expenditure.genetic predispositions and the environment affects an intricate system that controls appetite and energy expenditure.Environmental changes-the food industry in developed countries supports sophisticated advertising that encourages people to eat convenience foods, which are relatively inexpensive and have high levels of calories, fat, simple carbohydrates, and sodium, and low levels of fiber and micronutrientsSnacking in between mealsAn increase in sedentary activity and a lack of exercise (Dent & Swantson , 2011)

SIGNS OF PRESENTATION

A family history of type 2 diabetes, a high-risk ethnicity (african-american, hispanic, native american), and central adiposity increase the risk of hyperinsulinism or type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of polyuria, nocturia, polydipsia, and unexplained rapid weight loss are all associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. A history of maternal diabetes or obesity and being large or small for gestational age increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Snoring, episodes of nighttime coughing fits, or excessive daytime sleepiness can be due to obstructive sleep apnea, which warrants further investigation with referral to a sleep laboratory for polysomnography(Dent & Swantson , 2011).

DIAGNOSIS

The diagnosis of obesity in adults is based on calculation of the BMI by dividing the weight in kilograms by the height in meters squared (kg/m2) (Scott & Spouse, 2013). Other methods of determining adiposity are useful, but are either too expensive to be of practical use in a clinical setting (ultrasound, CT, MRI, DEXA, total body conductivity, air displacement plethysmography), require specialized training (skinfold thickness), have poor reproducibility (waist-hip ratios), or lack extensive normative data in children (bioelectric impedance analysis).

Prevention and MANAGEMENT

1. Anticipatory guidance-this looks at the avoidance of risk factors and control of eating mechanisms of those at risk of developing obesity2.Multidisciplinary and community based approach-healthy eating choices, meal and portion size planning, decreasing “screen time,” and approaches to increasing physical activity provide an important service for families with children at risk for becoming overweight or mildly to moderately overweight without comorbidities3. Dietary management4. Physical activity5. Medication-incorporates drugs that control the rate and the overall food intake and absorption in the gut6. Surgery- this includes procedures such as bariatric surgeries and adjustable gastric band placement (Scott & Spouse, 2013).

references

Allender, J., Rector, C., & Warner, K. (2013). Community & public health nursing: promoting the public’s health. Lippincot williams & wilkins.Dent, m., & Swantson , D. (2011). Obesity and life expectancy. National obesity observatory.Kumar, v., Abbas, A. K., & Aster, J. C. (2013). Robbins basic pathology. Elsevier saunders.Ogden, c. L., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2014). Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the united states. Journal of american medical association(jama), 311(8), 806-814.Scott, i., & Spouse, J. (2013). Practice based learning in nursing, health and social care: mentorship facilitation and supervision. John wiley& sons.




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