Analysis of a Philosopher’s View

Assignment 1: Analysis of a Philosopher’s View

PHI 220

Psychological Egoism Vs. Ethical Egoism

The psychological egoism falls under the empirical theory. According to psychological egoism, human nature is such that we are incapable of fundamental desires for anything but self-benefits (Tilley, 2016). The argument by James Rachel is about what motivates people as is psychological egoism. Although actions are observed to be activities that are self- intrigued, Mr. Rachel does go to mention that people try to cover up the process of deciding. Because this of all things is their highest benefit. People commonly rationalize the choice of a present good that turns out not to be in their self-interest (Irwin, 2017). On the other hand, ethical egoism is the fact that people should do what is best for their self- interest. Arguments of psychological egoism are that they are appealing because of the insights of how people with behave. The proposal of how people should act is not identified under psychological egoism. Arguments of ethical egoism are the fact that looking out for the things that interest you is considered to be self-vanquishing, and when we lend help to others we put them at a disadvantage to helping themselves.

Moral Skepticism

Moral skepticism is an ethical theory that claims no one has any moral knowledge. It is gathered that learning could not be possibly tied to a person’s moral standing. The biggest skeptic in moral skepticism is the fact that it raises doubt about common beliefs. One idea that supports moral skepticism is the nature of knowledge. Knowledge is most times disguised as justified belief then justification about moral belief implies skepticism about moral knowledge. Cheating is considered to be morally wrong, but cheating is merely expressions of emotions.

Morality in light of Egoism

The aspect of understanding and/or relationships with each other are a distant view of moral values. In the theory of egoism, one’s self should be the motivation and the goal of one’s actions. This levels out to the fact that a person should reach to peak of satisfaction, even though a person is not required to. So, while selfishness is widely opposed by such official moralists as

philosophers, priests, ministers, politicians, and pundits, most people will normally choose to be selfish instead of selfless. And by this they do not intend to be mean toward others, only to put themselves first on the list of their priorities (Machan, 2016).


Irwin, W. (2017). Psychological Egoism and Self-Interest. Reason Papers, 39(2), 69.

MACHAN, T. R. (2016). The Morality of Gregarious Egoism. Contemporary Readings in Law

& Social Justice, 8(2), 7–29.

Tilley, J. J. (2016). Hutcheson’s Theological Objection to Egoism. Journal of Scottish

Philosophy, 14(1), 101–123.

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