Essay Portions: The Process of Memory

The Process of Memory


The Process of Intelligence

Short Answer

Kara is ten years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13. According to Stern, what is her IQ? Conduct research to interpret her score.

The formula for calculating the IQ of a person using the mental age and the physical age of a person is IQ = Mental age ÷ Physical age × 100. Therefore, in the case of the Kara, who is ten years old and yet she has the mental age of a 13-year-old, her IQ will be IQ = 13 ÷ 10 × 100. Therefore, her IQ is 130.

Select two theories of intelligence, and write a 175- to 260-word discussion on the components of each theory, as well as how they differ about Spearman’s g. Which theory do you find most agreeable? Why?

Triarchic theory

One of the theories of intelligence is the triarchic theory that was proposed and advanced by Robert J. Sternberg, a scholar in psychology and especially the field of human intelligence. The theory was among the first ones to differ with the psychometric approach, which was more common at the time and follow the cognitive approach. The theorists identified three meta components that he proposed are important in human intelligence. Sternberg called the components triarchic components. Sternberg defined human intelligence as a mental activity that was involved in selecting and manipulating real-world environment relevant to the life of a person and also helped in adaptation to suit the environment. The theory, therefore, defines intelligence as to how people deal with their surrounding in their lives (Martin, 2015). The meta components are involved in the solving of problems as well as decision-making. A single factor that the theorist called homunculus is involved in all activities and directs the person on how they should act. Therefore, the theory accepts the general factor hypothesis proposed by Spearman. The three components that are important in the processing of information according to the theory include the componential intelligence. The componential intelligence involves the ability of a person as examined by tests of intelligence. The experimental intelligence, on the other hand, involves the ability of the person to adapt to novel situations and come up with ideas that help them thrive. The third meta-component is the contextual intelligence that deals with the ability to function and work well in day-to-day situations.

Spearman’s twofactor theory

Another theory of intelligence is Spearman’s two-factor theory of intelligence. The theorist proposed that human intelligence is made up of two primary factors. They include the g general factor of intelligence and the s factor that he also called the specific abilities factor. According to the theory, people’s intellectual performance depends on the g factor and the s factors and therefore, the total intelligence is a sum of the g and the s factors. The g factor has several important characteristics. First, it is constant. Another characteristic is that the g factor is inborn, and it differs among different people. People will greater g’s have greater chances of success. The characteristics of the ‘s’ factor are that it is acquired and varies among activities. The amount of ‘s’ differs among people. The G factor is the inherent intelligence, and therefore, during activities, the g factor gives the most significant contribution, and the s factors add to the rest. It is clear that the two-factor theory includes the g factor (Martin, 2015). The triarchic theory is more agreeable than the two-factor theory because it gives more details, and it details how the brain works in various contexts by the use of the three meta-components.

Learning and Intelligence

Describe the main components of classical conditioning

Classical conditioning can also be described as learning through association, and Pavlov proposed it. The most important aspects of the classical conditioning theory are two stimuli that have to be associated with learning. Therefore, two linked factors are brought together to cause learning. Classical conditioning has three stages. The first stage is before conditioning and involves an unconditioned stimulus, producing a response that is also unconditioned. Here, a natural stimulus in the environment leads to a response that is not taught. The second stage is during conditioning, and it involves a neutral stimulus being associated with a conditioned stimulus leading to it being conditioned. For instance, eating chocolate may be related to a stomach virus, making eating chocolate being conditioned (Olson, 2015). The third stage happens after conditioning, and here, people learn to be attracted or avoid stimulus based on the conditioning.

Describe the main components of operant conditioning

Operant conditioning happens through the association of behaviors with rewards as well as punishment. In the type of conditioning, people make relationships between their behaviors and the consequences. Three main categorized three primary kinds of responses that result from behaviors. They include neutral operants, punishers, and reinforces. Neutral operants are consequences that have zero effect on the probability of a person behaving in a certain way. Reinforcers, on the other hand, are the responses that lead to an increased probability of an individual repeating their behavior. Reinforces are usually either negative or positive. Punishers are a response that weakens behaviors (Olson, 2015). Therefore, punishment reduces the chances of a person behaving in a particular way.

Describe the different types of long-term memories.

There are three types of long-term memory. The first is procedural memory. Procedural memory is concerned with knowing the steps of performing tasks. It is the motor memory and helps people complete tasks in their lives. For example, knowing how to cook a particular food is part of procedural memory. Semantic memory is the other important type of memory, and it involves understanding details about the world. Semantic memory involves “knowing that” unlike procedural which concerns “knowing how.” The third type of long-term memory is episodic memory (Loftus & Loftus, 2019). The episodic memory concerns storing information about events.


Loftus, G. R., & Loftus, E. F. (2019). Human memory: The processing of information. Psychology Press.

Martin, A. J. (2015). Implicit theories about intelligence and growth (personal best) goals: Exploring reciprocal relationships. British Journal of Educational Psychology85(2), 207-223.

Olson, M. H. (2015). Introduction to theories of learning. Routledge.