PSY 225 aThe Power of Resiliency

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The Power of Resiliency

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Training Objectives

Learn the concept and definitions of resiliency Examine why it is important to study resiliency as an educatorReview a snapshot of risks students faceDiscuss current resiliency researchLearn specific strategies to develop and support resiliency in your students

Discussion: 1

How would you describe someone who is resilient?How do individuals develop resilient qualities?

“The world breaks everyone and afterward many are strong at the broken places.” Ernest Hemingway

Resiliency is Catching On

Military: Army“…to not only bounce back, but to thrive under challenging conditions.” – Brigadier CornumBusiness: IBM“The ability of an organization’s business operations to rapidly adapt and respond…”

Resiliency Defined

A pattern of positive adaptation in the context of past or present adversity (Wright & Masten, 2005).A set of inner resources, social competencies, and cultural strategies that permit individuals to not only survive, but recover, or even thrive after stressful events, but also to draw from the experience to enhance subsequent functioning (Stanton-Salazar & Spina, 2000).

Resiliency Defined (cont.)

Resilience in childhood is defined as typical development in the face of adverse circumstances that propel others to deleterious outcomes (Deater-Deckard, Ivy, & Smith, 2005). Resilience itself could be seen as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation in the face of challenging or threatening circumstances (Veselksa, Geckova, Orosova, Gajdosova, van Dijk, & Reijneveld, 2008).

Why Study Resiliency?

Children face adversity and are at riskWide variety of outcomes

Risks Students Face in CA

PovertyA child is born into poverty every 5 minutes1,591,295 children or 17.3% live in poverty (below $22,050 for a family of 4)6.6% live in extreme poverty (below one-half of poverty dollar amount)…. increased to 8% in 2009 (http://datacenter.kidscount.org) Abuse A child is abused or neglected every 6 minutes

Risks Students Face in CA

Juvenile Arrests231,735 arrests in 200815,240 living in juvenile residential facilitiesFirearmsA child or teen is killed by gunfire every 20 hours Academic Challenges77% of 4th graders are below grade level in reading70% of 4th graders are below grade level in math6.5% of 16 to 19 year olds are not enrolled in school and not high school graduatesChildren’s Defense Fund (www.childrensdefense.org)

Making a Difference…

“Shifting the balance or tipping the scales from vulnerability to resilience may happen as a result of one person or one opportunity.” – F. Benard

How Does Resiliency Work?

How do children “make it”?RisksProtective FactorsAssets

Background of Resiliency Research

Understand, prevent, and treat mental health problemsUnderstand the etiology of mental illness, schizophrenia, and conditions such as autismEvaluate consequences of major threats to development such as premature birth or traumaIn this process, researchers recognized unexpectedly positive adaptation or recovery after adversity in the lives of the young people they studied

Assets & Positive Attitudes/Behaviors

Resiliency Model

StressorsAdversityRisks

Individual & Environmental Protective Factors

Disruption

Reintegration

Dysfunctional Reintegration

Reintegration to Comfort Zone (Homeostasis)

Reintegration with Resiliency

Reintegrationwith Loss(Maladaptation)

Adapted from Richardson, Neiger, Jensen & Kumpfer, 1990

Key Points in Resiliency Model

When individuals experience adversity, they also experience protective factors These internal and external protective factors buffer the effects of adversityWithout protective factors, some individuals experience maladaptive coping mechanisms such as substance abuse, loss of self-worth, or an increase in risky behaviors

Resiliency Model Messages

Adversity can lead to a variety of outcomesBoth internal and external factors in the environment are critical for building resiliency

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Keep and encourage family members to be involved. Communicate regularly with family members regarding positive behaviors/academic performance.Consciously care and connect with students regularly and positivelySupport students to be involved with some of the many before, after, and in-school activities

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Provide opportunities for cooperative peer-to peer interactions through teaching strategies and/or school programsPromote sharing of responsibilities, service to others, required helpfulness

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Norms, rules, and policies are communicated clearly and regularly Involve students in rule setting and consequences as appropriate

Discussion: 6

Mitigate/Lesson Risk Factors in the Environment

What are some life skills you value as important to model for your students or include in your curriculum development?

Teach Life Skills

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Provide ongoing instruction in life skills appropriate to developmental tasks such as goal setting, identifying and expressing positive and negative feelingsIntegrate and support the following skills: assertiveness, healthy conflict resolution, cooperation, good decision making and effective problem solvingModel and discuss healthy stress management techniques

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Provide unconditional positive regard and encouragementNotice all students, draw out those who may not readily participate, and intervene when necessary Remark on strengths and coping mechanismsProvide a variety of ways for students to be recognized and rewardedReward random acts of kindness

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Develop cooperative teaching strategiesFocus on both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation based on age and interestPlace responsibility for learning on the students through active participationCommunicate that the schoolwork is important, you are confident it can be done, and you will not give up on them.

Fostering Resiliency with Students

Allow and encourage students to participate in class or school decisions.. Provide opportunities to help other students through cooperative learning, peer helping or providing service to others. Support students in taking on new challenges in and outside of the classroom.

Promoting Resiliency in Schools

Classroom InterventionsPractice empathyHelp all students feel welcome and appreciatedDevelop realistic expectationsDiscuss the role of mistakes in learningDevelop responsibility and compassionTeach students how to solve problems and make decisionsUse discipline to promote self-discipline -Brooks & Goldstein (2001)

References

Websiteswww.search-institute.orgwww.cdl.org Free Newsletters from the Search InstituteYouthSense: a resource for people who work with children and teensThe Asset Champion: inspiring stories from community initiatives around the worldInsights and Evidence: latest research findings

References (cont.)

Books“Fostering Resilience,” by Martin Krovetz“Resiliency: What we Have Learned,” by Bonnie Bernard“Understanding and Managing Children’s Classroom Behavior”, by Sam Goldstein and Robert Brooks




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