Inferential Statistics Article Critique

Inferential Statistics Article Critique

Ashford University


Inferential Statistics Article Critique

In this paper, I will discuss the research conducted in a study regarding women smokers and the connection between smoking and body image as it pertains to those who are physically active versus sedentary. While many individuals who quit smoking do have a tendency to gain a few extra pounds, weight gain among female smokers plays a very small role in the cessation of smoking.

In the article “Differential effects of a body image exposure session on smoking urge between physically active and sedentary female smokers” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013) the author(s) are trying to answer the question of whether physically active (PA) female smokers are more likely to smoke less than sedentary (SE) female smokers based on their need to maintain a specific body image and or to keep from gaining excess weight.

The hypothesis that is being tested in this article is that sedentary smokers exhibit a more significant “urge to smoke as compared to physically active smokers” (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013). The measured variable in this study includes that of PA female smokers (the continuous variable) versus SE female smokers and whether or not PA female smokers maintain body image through vigorous exercise and depend less on smoking to maintain their weight than do SE female smokers.

The statistical analysis of this article is composed of 37 female smokers who range from 18-24 years of age, they must smoke 5 or more cigarettes per/day and have no psychological disorders, they must participate in 60 minutes or more of vigorous exercise per/week, 90 minutes of moderate exercise per/week, or 30 minutes or less of moderate activity per/week. In order to determine whether or not body image was a factor regarding the urge to smoke among PA and SE female smokers, the participants were asked to go without smoking for 2 hours and then asked to choose one of two outfits to wear (a swimsuit or a sports bra and short). The participants were then asked to stand 2 feet in front of a full-length mirror while rating the satisfaction of their body parts while wearing the outfit of their choice (Nair, Collins, & Napolitano, 2013). For this study I think that the researchers did a good job of examining the different aspects associated with PA and SE female smokers and their desire to maintain body image with smoking, however, I would have chosen a larger sample. I feel that a larger sample would have given a more accurate analysis in regards to whether or not female smokers use smoking to maintain weight and body image.

In this article it is assumed that PA female smokers are less likely to use smoking as a way to maintain body image that SE female smokers, however, the researchers indicated that the level of Physical activity reported by the participants was self-reported, and thus there is no way to know if the levels reported were accurate or not. In this case, I would have monitored the participants via a pedometer or other accessible device in order to be able to more accurately separate participants into the proper categories PA/SE. I think this would have helped the researchers to more accurately determine the outcome of the study.

In this case the author(s) applied statistical testing by first taking a sample of the population that they wished to study (PA and SE female smokers), and then compared the two against one another to find which group was more dependent upon smoking to maintain body image PA female smokers or SE female smokers. The researchers then administered body image tests to both groups to determine the dependency that smoking had on each group to maintain body image.

As a result of the author’s applications of statistical concepts, they were able to determine that their hypothesis that SE female smokers exhibited more dependence on the urge to smoking to maintain body image was true.

In conclusion, the authors have determined that SE female smokers do depend more on smoking to maintain body image and control weight. While weight gain is a concern when it comes to quitting smoking addiction to nicotine and other chemicals in cigarettes plays a large role.


Nair, U. S., Collins, B. N., & Napolitano, M. A. (2013). Differential Effects of a Body Image Exposure Session on Smoking UrgeBetween Physically Active and Sedentary Female Smokers [Journal]. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27(1), 322-327. Retrieved from