Understanding the Etiology and Treatment Approaches of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Understanding the Etiology and Treatment Approaches of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

PSY350: Physiological Psychology (PSF1933A)

Understanding the Etiology and Treatment Approaches of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety issue that can happen following the experience or seeing of a traumatic event. A traumatic event is a hazardous occasion, for example, military combat, catastrophic events, terrorist events, genuine accidents, or physical or sexual assault encounters in adulthood or youth years. Most overcomers of injury come back to typical given a brief period. In any case, a few people will have pressure responses that don’t leave individually or may even deteriorate after some time. These people may create PTSD (US Department of Veteran Affairs, 2019). I personally feel that one of my main reasons for choosing posttraumatic stress disorder as my choice of neuropsychological disorder for comprehensive analysis to reflect on is because my father is a war veteran that served in the Vietnam war. With this being the case, I have seen the various ways that he has been affected by PTSD, thus I would like to become more familiar with the disorder. In this paper I will briefly describe the etiology of PTSD, how PTSD can be a disorder caused by the environment and how genetics can play a part, as well as describe treatment methods.

Trauma and stressor-related disorders incorporate issues in which introduction to an awful or unpleasant occasion is recorded expressly as a symptomatic measure. These incorporate reactive attachment disorder, disinhibited social engagement issue, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), intense stress disorder, and adjustment disorders. This mirrors the close connection between these diagnoses and disarranges in the encompassing sections on anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and dissociative issue. At times, manifestations can be surely known inside a fear or anxiety based setting. However, numerous people who have been presented to a traumatic or stressful event display a phenotype where, as opposed to tension or dread based manifestations, the most noticeable clinical qualities are anhedonic and dysphoric side effects, externalizing irate and forceful side effects, or dissociative side effects. Social disregard, which is the nonappearance of the caregiver producing satisfactory care during adolescence is an indicative prerequisite of both receptive emotional issues and disinhibited social commitment issue. Even though the two issues share a typical etiology, the former is communicated as a disguising issue with burdensome indications and pulled back conduct, while the latter is set apart by disinhibition and externalizing conduct (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Prior to me doing research on PTSD, I always had the misconception that PTSD only derives from events. I could have not been more wrong. Events, environment and genetics can all play a part in the development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Past experiences moderate hazard for creating PTSD considering trauma, especially when introduction to stress happens right off the bat throughout everyday life. In this way, childhood adversity is related with expanded risk to create PTSD because of battle exposure in Vietnam Veterans. There is a blossoming literature reporting that early unfavorable experience, including prenatal stress and stress all through adolescence, has significant and dependable consequences for the improvement of neurobiological frameworks, thus “programming” consequent stress reactivity and weakness to create PTSD. Research on the genetics qualities of PTSD have been hampered by an assortment of components, for example, hereditary heterogeneity (comparative phenotypes create from various genotypes) and fragmented phenotypic penetrance (an individual with hereditary hazard for PTSD, who isn’t presented to injury, won’t create PTSD). In spite of these perplexes, there is accumulating proof that risk for PTSD is vigorously affected by hereditary components. Women more frequently experience the ill effects of PTSD than men for reasons that are not so much clear. Women and men are all in all exposed to various kinds of trauma, however the distinctions in PTSD recurrence (allegedly 2:1) are probably not going to be clarified exclusively based on exposure type or potentially severity alone. Elements that may decide gender differences in the stress reaction incorporate genomic contrasts and additionally formatively programmed impacts of gonadal steroids (Sherin & Nemeroff, 2011).

When dealing with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder there are both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical methods of treatment. It is imperative to note that not every person who encounters trauma develops PTSD, and not every person who develops PTSD requires mental treatment. For certain individuals, side effects of PTSD die down or vanish after some time. Others show signs of improvement with the assistance of family, companions or clergy. However, numerous individuals with PTSD need proficient treatment to recoup from mental pain that can be exceptional and handicapping. Specialists and other psychological well-being experts utilize different viable techniques to help individuals recoup from PTSD. Both talk treatment (psychotherapy) and prescription provide compelling evidence-based medications to help treat PTSD. Cognitive Processing Therapy centers around altering difficult negative feelings, (e.g., disgrace and guilt) and convictions, (e.g., “I have failed”; “the world is hazardous”) because of the trauma. Therapists help the individual face such upsetting recollections and feelings. Prolonged Exposure Therapy uses rehashed, detailed envisioning of the trauma or dynamic exposures to side effect “triggers” in a protected, controlled manner to enable an individual to face and deal with dread and misery and figure out how to adapt. For instance, computer generated reality programs have been utilized to help war veterans with PTSD re-experience the war zone in a controlled, restorative manner. Medicines can control the side effects of PTSD. Furthermore, the indication alleviation that prescription gives enables numerous individuals to take part more successfully in psychotherapy. A few antidepressants such as SSRIs and SNRIs (selective serotonin re-take-up inhibitors and selective norepinephrine re-take-up inhibitors), are regularly used to treat the center side effects of PTSD. They are utilized either alone or alongside psychotherapy or other various treatments (American Psychiatric Association, 2019).

In conclusion, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may influence a wide range of individuals. This is an exceptionally normal issue, and numerous individuals will in general have this more than we may know nowadays. Each sign and side effect of PTSD may likewise be not quite the same from individual to individual. Some of the signs and side effects that might be available in people who suffer from this disorder might remember an unpleasant occasion through flashbacks, dreams or even bad dreams. PTSD does not have a particular age limit but rather most men do appear to encounter this issue more than most ladies do at times. Mental impacts are exceptionally basic inside somebody who has encountered PTSD. They are frequently remembering their traumatic experience within themselves. Treatments that have been used to work for PSTD have been prescription and psychotherapy.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Section II: Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://dsm-psychiatryonline-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/doi/full/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596.dsm07ju0

American Psychiatric Association. (2019). What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?. Retrieved from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/ptsd/what-is-ptsd

Sherin, J. E., & Nemeroff, C. B. (2011). Post-traumatic stress disorder: the neurobiological impact of psychological trauma. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 13(3), 263–278.

US Department of Veteran Affairs. (2019). What is PTSD?. Retrieved from https://www.mirecc.va.gov/cih-visn2/Documents/Patient_Education_Handouts/Handout_What_is_PTSD.pdf

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