PSY 350 Week 2 Assignment: Final Project Annotated Bibliography

Final Project Annotated Bibliography

PSY350: Physiological Psychology (PSF1933A)

Final Project Annotated Bibliography

1. American Psychiatric Association. (2019). What Is Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?. Retrieved from

When dealing with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder there are both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical methods of treatment. It is imperative to note that not every person who encounters trauma develops PTSD, and not every person who develops PTSD requires mental treatment. For certain individuals, side effects of PTSD die down or vanish after some time. Others show signs of improvement with the assistance of family, companions or clergy. However, numerous individuals with PTSD need proficient treatment to recoup from mental pain that can be exceptional and handicapping. Specialists and other psychological well-being experts utilize different viable techniques to help individuals recoup from PTSD. Both talk treatment (psychotherapy) and prescription provide compelling evidence-based medications to help treat PTSD. Cognitive Processing Therapy centers around altering difficult negative feelings, (e.g., disgrace and guilt) and convictions, (e.g., “I have failed”; “the world is hazardous”) because of the trauma. Therapists help the individual face such upsetting recollections and feelings. Prolonged Exposure Therapy uses rehashed, detailed envisioning of the trauma or dynamic exposures to side effect “triggers” in a protected, controlled manner to enable an individual to face and deal with dread and misery and figure out how to adapt. For instance, computer generated reality programs have been utilized to help war veterans with PTSD re-experience the war zone in a controlled, restorative manner. Medicines can control the side effects of PTSD. Furthermore, the indication alleviation that prescription gives enables numerous individuals to take part more successfully in psychotherapy. A few antidepressants such as SSRIs and SNRIs (selective serotonin re-take-up inhibitors and selective norepinephrine re-take-up inhibitors), are regularly used to treat the center side effects of PTSD. They are utilized either alone or alongside psychotherapy or other various treatments (American Psychiatric Association, 2019). This source is actually helpful in a few ways. This article explains what PTSD is, it gives some of the symptoms and diagnosis of PTSD, and also provides some methods and treatment for individuals that are suffering from PTSD. Since I will be using this article to primarily help me with various methods of treatment for PTSD I just reflected on that part of the source. This source is relevant to my final paper because it will be utilized to develop techniques and methods of pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical forms of treatment for PTSD.

2. US Department of Veteran Affairs. (2019). What is PTSD?. Retrieved from

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety issue that can happen following the experience or seeing of a traumatic event. A traumatic event is a hazardous occasion, for example, military combat, catastrophic events, terrorist events, genuine accidents, or physical or sexual assault encounters in adulthood or youth years. Most overcomers of injury come back to typical given a brief period. In any case, a few people will have pressure responses that don’t leave individually or may even deteriorate after some time. These people may create PTSD (US Department of Veteran Affairs, 2019). This article breaks down and explains what PTSD is along with the causes of PTSD. Also, the symptoms are given in order to inform people on how individuals are diagnosed with the disorder. Later throughout the article it breaks down how common PTSD among men and women while also mentioning what traumatic events are most common to cause PTSD in men and which events are most common to cause PTSD in women. It was very interesting to me to find out that this article also contains the way that PTSD can affect men and women in other areas of their lives such as marriages and relationships, depression and anxiety, as well as substance abuse. I will likely be utilizing this source to help me thoroughly breakdown what exactly PTSD is and the other ways that it effects the daily lives of individuals that suffer from it.

3. Bountress, K. E., Wei Wei, Sheerin, C., Dongjun Chung, Amstadter, A. B., Mandel, H., & Zhewu Wang. (2017). Relationships between GAT1 and PTSD, Depression, and Substance Use Disorder. Brain Sciences (2076-3425)7(1), 6. Retrieved from

This article discloses the fact that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and substance use disorder (SUD) all have huge impacts on the individuals that are affected by them. This article later mentions how each of these disorders are genetically influenced by both emotional and fear memories. The article gives some very interesting information on four GABA transporter subtype genes that we have in our brains (GAT1, GAT2, GAT3, and GAT4), with the GAT1 gene possibly playing a major part with our weaknesses when it comes to the negative outcomes after experiencing trauma. Our final paper requires me to discuss associated genetic factors of PTSD. Therefore, I will use this article in order to give information on how genetics can be a factor when regarding the development of PTSD.

4. Atwoli, L., Ayuku, D., Hogan, J., Koech, J., Vreeman, R. C., Ayaya, S., & Braitstein, P. (2014). Impact of Domestic Care Environment on Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Orphans in Western Kenya. PLoS ONE9(3), 1–7.

This article reveals how many orphans in Western Kenya had developed PTSD from experiences of physical abuse, bullying and sexual abuse in camps that a lot of them were placed in. 2010 showed that in Africa it was estimated to be over 53 million orphans with Kenya estimated to have 2.5 million of them located there. Psychological and social needs were addressed, with the kids being in camps of extended periods of time PTSD began to develop. 1,565 orphans were part of a study which only 1,451 studies were done and most of them showed strong results for PTSD whether the were living in camps or homes of their extended family. High levels of bullying were discovered in over 80% of the children whether they were living in Charitable Children’s Institutes or considered to be living on the streets. A quarter of the 80% tested positive for PTSD were the youth living on the streets and are more than twice likely to develop PTSD that the orphans that lived with extended family. This source will be utilized on order to show how environmental factors can increase the chances of developing PTSD.

5. Munjiza, J., Britvic, D., Radman, M., & Crawford, M. J. (2017). Severe war-related trauma and personality pathology: a case-control study. BMC Psychiatry, 17(1), 100.

This article is a case-control study that investigates the exposure to war-related trauma and whether or not it has dire effects on mental health even 15 years or more after the traumatic event. War effects individuals both physically and mentally whether they are fighting in the war or innocent people that live in the warzone. Either way when a person experiences war there is a chance of developing PTSD. A study was done on people in Croatia who lived there during the 1991-1995 war with both case and control individuals that are both inpatient and outpatients in a mental health and general hospitals. These people were people that have been diagnosed with personality issues. Assessments were taken between the time 11/20 – 10/2011 that included 182 participants, with 169 reporting being exposed to one or more war related traumas. One strength of this study is that it is possibly the only study that is focusing on Axis II disorders and how severe trauma is affecting individuals that have been exposed to war-related trauma. A limitation to this study is said to be recall bias which is triggered by the war experiences of the individuals. This source will be used in my final paper as an original research study that shows how war-related trauma can have long lasting effects on people.

6. Ravid, S., Shorer, S., Reshef, A., Schiff, E., Shacham, M., Cohen, L., & Bloch, B. (2019). Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Using Integrative Medicine: Case History. Journal of Chinese Medicine, (119), 5–12. Retrieved from

This article is a case study that focuses on blood stasis and how the integration of conventional biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have been utilized in the past few decades in order to see how it progresses with its relationship with treating PTSD and other mental health issues. An explanation is given of exactly what PTSD is and the first records of the disorder. According to this article the first records of what is now known as PTSD was as early as 2000 B.C.E. in which a tablet was found describing King Urnamma dying in battle and how it negatively affected the citizens living in Ur. However, Posttraumatic stress disorder did not become a term until 1980, after the Vietnam war veterans were affected by the war and the Women’s movement of the 1970’s, having the DSM-III classify PTSD as a psychiatric disorder. The article then expresses that one of the main causes of blood stasis is likely external trauma because the blood vessels are injured by the stress making blood escape from the vessels, which in then in turn causes skin, muscle, ligament, and internal organ issues. Regular psychiatric therapy was given to an Israeli woman suffering from PTSD as well as medicinal treatment with no relief until TCM methods were integrated in her treatment, with relief of her symptoms showing within a week later. This source will be used in my final paper as a case study that reports a method of treatment of PTSD, as well as other mental health disorders.

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