Report on the potential work hazards

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Report on the potential work hazards.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….3

Methods of data collection…………………………………………………………………3

Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………4

Active shooter incident……………………………………………………………………4

Profile of an active shooter……………………………………………………….4

Action to take when an active shooter enters your office…………………………5

What to do if an active shooter is outside the office building…………………….7

What to do when the police of the first responder arrives…………………………8

Plan for when an active shooter incident is identified…………………………….8

Fire evacuation procedures………………………………………………………………..9

Evacuation………………………………………………………………………….9

Reporting a fire incident……………………………………………………………11

Tornadoes………………………………………………………………………………….11

Response and evacuation in the event of a tornado………………………………..11

Reporting a tornado………………………………………………………………..12

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………… 12

Figure 1……………………………………………………………………………………. 13

References…………………………………………………………………………………14

Report on the potential work hazards in a company

Introduction

The world today cannot be termed as safe. There are very many potential hazards, which may lead to lose of lives and/or damage of property. In the process of transacting everyday business in companies, there may be potential hazards, which may put the people in the company premise at risk or in danger of certain hazards that may occur. Most of them cannot be controlled or stopped from happening but depending on the response, a difference can be made. On this study, I focused on some of the potential hazards that may affect the Recruiting Retention College (RRC) at Fort Knox.

Methods of data collection

I used the following methods to collect data

I interviewed our Safety Officer at the RRC who is the expert on disaster response. I inquired on various issues pertaining the hazards and how to respond to them.

  • Interviews

The reading materials provided a lot of data on how the topics studied. I also got some information on how to respond to the disasters from reading materials.

  • Books and reading materials

Since internet provides the latest data, I used the internet to check for the latest updates and to complement the data I had gotten from the books.

  • Internet sources

Discussion

Active shooter incident

An active shooter is a person actively engaged in the killing or attempted killing of people in an areas.it is almost impossible to identify an active shooter before the begin shooting because they usually have a defined pattern of behavior or a certain characteristic. However, there are some characteristics in which shooters in the past have exhibited. Most people think of them as lonely people who have threatening looks which is not true. The shooters usually behave as other normal people would do and may even be social just like the rest of the people or even above social (Capellan, 2015).

Profile of an active shooter

For one to identify an active shooter, one must take note of the following. For starters one must know that the shooters are just the same people that are known. Normally, people who are usually isolated will be afraid of doing such things. The shooters normally portray a change in behavior after they begin planning for carrying out the incident (Smith et al., 2016). People who are close to them can tell the different and if lucky can tell their malicious intentions. One should take note of the person who just smiled or talked to you.

Secondly, most of them usually process suicidal thoughts. One will only be motivated to kill other people if he or she has the guts to take their own life. Most of the shooters in the United States have been found out to have suicide plans prior to the shooting. They usually want to die but don’t want to die alone (Capellan, 2015). That is why they result into killing other innocent people. So, if you note anyone with suicidal plans try to help the person emotionally or report to the nearest help center.

As for the motivation for their actions, stress or other health issues are usually identified as the motivators. Some of the causes of stress may be financial problems, injuries, problems with the law and other emotional problems (Jennings et al., 2011). They may suffer from neglect or lack someone to seek help from. This is usually followed by a series of depression. They may then have a violent behavior due to their frustrations leading to the urge for things like wanting to hurt others.

The most common and easily identifiable is confrontational or threatening behavior among the shooters. They may issue both verbal and written threats to their targets. The shooters usually want to instill fear in their victims and if the victims do not comply, they may result into extreme measures such as shooting. They may also try to express their feelings to a third party. For example, if some use social media or radio to express their feelings. They may leak or hint about their bad intentions on social media. Normally people do not understand the message they are trying to relay until they are too late. One should therefore watch out for suggestive messages on social media posts and report them to the law enforcement for investigations and for them to act of necessary (Towers et al, 2015).

Action to take when an active shooter enters your office.

The sound of a gunshot may cause one to panic. The presence of the shooter in an office will result into more panicking. If one has not be preparing or taught how to react on such situations, the results may be fatal. The following are the some of the things one should do in the event that a shooter enters into the office. First, look for the easiest and safest way to escape. Yes, getting away from the shooter is the best option for one to take (Rorie, 2015). This will reduce the chances of the shooter having the chance to shoot and cause injury or death. For this to be effective, one should study the office and identify several escape routes that can be used in such an event. If possible, practice on getting out using the identified routes. This will make it easier to escape during a situation that prompts one to panic. Don’t choose routes that are too obvious as the shooter may have learnt them already.

Secondly, look for a secure place to hide. Look for hiding space with barriers such as metals. Do not hide in obvious places such as behind the door. Just as I have said about escaping, identify area one can hide prior to the incident. If there are no places one can hide, improvise as one does not know when such an event can occur. For example, buy door stoppers which can prevent the door from being opened when you close the door in such situations. For example, buy two large door stoppers which can be put behind the door and prevent it from being opened from the outside. When hiding, avoid having things that may reveal your position to the assailant. Switch off mobile phones or put them in silent mode. Shooters usually look for numerous people to kill unless you are their target.so hiding may be a good option for they don’t usually look for people who are hiding in most cases (Williams, 2012).

If the above two options are Impossible, fight for your life. It is better to die trying that to die doing nothing at all. This should be the last option. Only do this when the only option is to leave the shooter to shoot you or take confrontational action (Capellan, 2015). Look for an object that you can use to subdue the shooter. For example, throw a chair or hard object towards the shooter and attempt to disarm him. Be aggressive and avoid panicking if you find out that the shooter is stronger. This calls for advanced planning on how to react. Learn on some few tricks that you can use in such events.

Lastly create a strategy to deal with the emergency. Involve other staff in the office so as to come out with the most elaborate plan that fits all. Having a clear plan will save on time when responding to such situations. Ensure that there is a plan put in place to ensure that law enforcement agencies are notified so that they can swiftly respond with professional help (Dino, 2009). Once you are out, prevent others from getting into the premise so as they cannot be easy targets.

What to do if an active shooter is outside the office building

The first option is to run to the nearest barrier or the place that has been identified as a safe zone. These exits leading to a safe room or a hiding place. Most people don’t usually leave the place they are when they hear gunshots due to panic. Leaving the area when many people are may be the best thing one can do. The shooters normally look for areas where there are many people so that they can get the highest number of victims (Dino, 2009).

Secondly, hide in an area and close all the areas the shooter may use to enter. Being inside may be the safest place to be. Close all the windows and doors. Reinforce the locks on doors by putting objects behind the doors. For starters, you can push desks behind doors so as to prevent entry. The widows should be blocked if possible, so as to prevent the shooter from having a view inside. When escaping, don’t stop to get your belongings. Your life is more important that your possessions. Make for the safest place to be without thinking twice.

If you encounter the shooter when in an open area, run in a zig zag manner. This will enhance your chances of survival. Shooting a moving target is usually difficult especially if the target is moving in a zigzag direction. Most of this shooter are not usually experienced in shooting so they may just shoot into the air to scare or shoot misses (Dino, 2009). Do not run for long distances as this will increase the chances of being shot. Just move as fast as possible and get behind barriers. As soon as you get into safety, call 911 as police may not have been informed. Don’t take it for granted and assume that someone has already alerted the police (Semenov, et al, 2010).

What to do when the police of the first responder arrive

Officers usually come in groups and will proceed to the area that the last shots were heard. They are usually dressed in uniform or bullet proof vests. When the officers arrive, the following are the actions that one can take. Most important, remain calm and follow the directives that will be given by the officers (Semenov et al., 2010). Put down any items that you may be carrying for example if you have heavy bags or luggage. Carrying such items may prompt the officers to thin that you have weapons, or you are attempting to confront them. Raise your hands up and spread your fingers wide. Always keep your hands where the officers can see them at all time.

Do not make movements towards them in a hasty manner or try to hold on them for safety. This may inhibit their efforts to make the area secure. Do not point or yell. This may be dangerous and may result in not good consequences. When being guided out, just follow the directives and avoid asking the officers for directions or asking other questions. The first response officers do not usually stop to help the injured people (Blair & Martaindale, 2013).

Plan for when an active shooter incident is identified.

The following are the responsibilities assigned to the people in the event a shooter is identified. First the human resource department are some to perform the following functions. They should screen all the work force so as to identify threats from within. They should create procedures for reporting in the event a person is observed to have a threatening behavior. After identification, counselling services should be given to the employees and made available at all times. Lastly, they should suggest measures depending on their employee preference so as to handle active shooter situations (Card, et al, 2012).

As for the management, they are to do the following. They should provide access controls in situations. These controls include security systems access codes as they are the ones mandated with them. They should also distribute the access controls to others such as plans, keys to other people in the organization. They should coordinate response in the event of a situation. Lastly, they should ensure that all the response procedures are applicable and the necessary equipment in good condition. They should also activate the response during emergencies (Calhoun & Weston, 2016).

Employees, customers and any other group of people that may be in the premise in the time of the shooting should follow the direction of managers during the situation. They are supposed to remain calm, respond swiftly, lock doors and entries and evacuate in the appropriate evacuation route. People with disabilities should be informed of the steps to be taken and assisted where they can assist themselves. The building should be made to be accessible and enable ease of movement of people with disabilities.

Fire evacuation procedures

Evacuation

Organizations should maintain several evacuation procedures so as to ensure that the people will respond appropriately in the event of a fire. This could inform of a fire action signs which will placed at places where they can be seen by everyone. The signs should indicate the procedures to be taken as well as who is to provide guidance in such situations (Ronchi & Nilsson, 2013). The fire signs should be general fire signs for everyone and the staff fire signs. The staff signs are to be used by the staff working in highly risks environments where the possibilities of a fire starting are pretty high. There should be a strategy of how the evacuation is to be conducted.

Evacuation may be by the following ways. First there is the simultaneous evacuation. This type of evacuation is where everyone reacts to the fire alarm and make their way into a safe place. The response is normally prompted by the fire alarm. People are to observe calm and move into the designated areas without causing a stampede. This is the most common fire evacuation procedure (Kobes, et al, 2010).

The second procedure is the vertical phased evacuation procedure. This applies to large premises. The people who are most threatened by the fire are evacuated first before those least threatened. This involves alerting the people least threatened to remain put and allow the ones more threatened to evacuate first (Sharma, et al, 2014). Those in the floors where the fires are and the floors above it should be evacuate first as they are more threatened. Those least threated are the last to be evacuated. This is done so as to reduce congestion on the escaping routes. This procedure should be considered when there is extra time and the threat is not too huge. Other procedures may also be used alongside it as it uses a lot of time.

Staff alarm evacuation. In the event there is many people in the premise, a general fire alarm may not be necessary. Staff may be notified using a coded measure for them to utilize the pre-arranged plans of evacuation. They will be able to identify the section of people most threatened and take measures necessary or laid out. They will then evacuate people in sections so as to avoid stampede. If this takes time and does not seem to be in swift response to the magnitude of the threat, the general alarm may be activated so that the members of the public may know what is happening (Sharma et al., 2014).

The fire plan of the premise should instruct the people to behave accordingly to the FEEP strategy agreed. The fire alarm should call for immediate action with all the members moving the positions that were predetermined so as to assist the others to leave the building. After leaving the building, the personnel should not go back into the building. Only the fire response team should be allowed to reenter the building (Ronchi & Nilsson, 2013). Figure 1 shows a rally point that all Recruiting and Retention College students and employees should meet for accountability.

Reporting a fire incident.

The fire team should be alerted immediately when the fire is found. This should be done by use of a switchboard of an emergency and/or calls by the person whom discovers the fire if the conditions allow. During work time, the switch board should be activated and should be conversant with the evacuation plan. During other times for example when the staff present should be conversant and be able to swiftly alert the fire response team if a fire breaks out (Abel, et al, 2012). The organization should liaison with the local fire teams. They should arrange for all the necessary contacts to be available to everyone. They should be put in areas where they can be seen by all. There should also a person appointed so as to meet the rescue team and give them the details they may require about the fire and other things such as the building.

Tornadoes

Response and evacuation in the event of a tornado.

A Tornadoes is a natural disaster and pushing through it requires for preparedness of the highest order. Shelter locations should be identified before it occurs. The locations may include underground areas or rooms without a flat roof. The areas should be kept vacant and should be ready at all team. A tornado response is necessary when a tornado has been spotted or it is indicated on the radar. People should be notified immediately so that they can avoid being victims of the damages caused by the tornado. The following are some of the actions to take in the event there is a tornado alert (Durage, et al, 2014).

First, seek one should seek a hallway or a small interior room in the floor they are in. the person should also make sure that he or she is in the lowest floor as possible. Stay away from the doors and windows so as to avoid being injured by debris.it is advisable to maintain a position at the center of the room as the corners attract debris brought about by the tornado. The companies should have rooms with walls and floors which are reinforced with concrete and bricks and have no doors and have a heavy concrete roof. One should avoid rooms with flat roofs such as auditoriums and gymnasiums.

Reporting a tornado

There are various ways in which one can report bad severe weathers. One of the ways is through use of the hotline provided. This is the most reliable way of reporting as there already some measures put in to ensure that people are notified. Other methods may be use of alarm and use of social media (Coleman & Dixon, 2014).

Conclusion

In my research of online, interviews, books and reading material I have come to a conclusion the RRC runs a very significant system when it comes to hazardous situations. Per my interview with the RRC Safety officer he stated that each hazard was taken in to consideration very carefully to ensure the safety of all employees and the students were taken serious. This led to a significant thorough process of ensuring a well thought plan was implemented. I feel very safe and secure knowing that when I am at the Recruiting and Retention College there is a procedure in place that I feel confident in.

References

Abel, F., Hauff, C., Houben, G. J., Stronkman, R., & Tao, K. (2012, April). Twitcident: fighting fire with information from social web streams. In Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on World Wide Web (pp. 305-308). ACM.

Blair, J. P., & Martaindale, M. H. (2013). United States active shooter events from 2000 to 2010: Training and equipment implications. San Marcos, TX: Texas State University.

Calhoun, F. S., & Weston, S. W. (2016). Threat assessment and management strategies: Identifying the howlers and hunters. CRC Press.

Capellan, J. A. (2015). Lone wolf terrorist or deranged shooter? A study of ideological active shooter events in the United States, 1970–2014. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(6), 395-413.

Card, A. J., Harrison, H., Ward, J., & Clarkson, P. J. (2012). Using prospective hazard analysis to assess an active shooter emergency operations plan. Journal of Healthcare Risk Management, 31(3), 34-40.

Coleman, T. A., & Dixon, P. G. (2014). An objective analysis of tornado risk in the United States. Weather and forecasting, 29(2), 366-376.

Dino, J. T. (2009). A study in police preparedness to respond to active shooter situations to provide a safer learning environment in the schools of Bergen County, New Jersey.

Durage, S. W., Kattan, L., Wirasinghe, S. C., & Ruwanpura, J. Y. (2014). Evacuation behaviour of households and drivers during a tornado. Natural hazards, 71(3), 1495-1517.

Jennings, W. G., Khey, D. N., Maskaly, J., & Donner, C. M. (2011). Evaluating the relationship between law enforcement and school security measures and violent crime in schools. Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations, 11(2), 109-124.

Kobes, M., Helsloot, I., De Vries, B., Post, J. G., Oberijé, N., & Groenewegen, K. (2010). Way finding during fire evacuation; an analysis of unannounced fire drills in a hotel at night. Building and Environment, 45(3), 537-548.

Ronchi, E., & Nilsson, D. (2013). Fire evacuation in high-rise buildings: a review of human behaviour and modelling research. Fire science reviews, 2(1), 7.

Rorie, S. (2015). Implementing an active shooter training program. EMERGENCY, 101(1), C5.

Semenov, A., Veijalainen, J., & Kyppo, J. (2010). Analysing the presence of school-shooting related communities at social media sites. International Journal of Multimedia Intelligence and Security, 1(3), 232-268.

Sharma, P., Dhanwantri, K., & Mehta, S. (2014). Evacuation Patterns in High-Rise Buildings. International Journal of Civil Engineering Research. ISSN, 2278-3652.

Smith, E. R., Shapiro, G., & Sarani, B. (2016). The profile of wounding in civilian public mass shooting fatalities. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 81(1), 86-92.

Towers, S., Gomez-Lievano, A., Khan, M., Mubayi, A., & Castillo-Chavez, C. (2015). Contagion in mass killings and school shootings. PLoS one, 10(7), e0117259.

Williams, D. J. (2012). Active shooter safety considerations for educators.




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