Ground and Surface Water Interactions Laboratory

Ground and Surface Water Interactions Laboratory

SCI 207: Our Dependence Upon the Environment

Ground and surface Water Interactions Laboratory


Clean drinking water is vital for the survival and continuance of plant and human life on earth. Ground and surface water are water sources that determine the source modification and interaction of these two. When analyzing the contributing factors of land and surface water, we can see how both develop over a period and the impact they leave on the quality and availability of water. Groundwater is water that is held underground in the pores and soil or rocks and crevices (Britannica, 2019). It is also known as subsurface water. Most of the groundwater we utilize comes from precipitation. Precipitation infiltrates from below the ground surface. Surface water is constrained to exposure to human interactions. Carelessness in the usage of trash and pollutants in surface water causes a source that endangers life and makes it impossible to drink without analyzing. Groundwater also becomes tainted by chemicals, gas, oil, and a mixture of other solvents from runoff that pollutes the ground and makes it unfit to utilize. When we abuse our water supply in these manners, we endanger the lives of our plant and animal life, too. That why it is critical to take the necessary steps to protect and provide safety protocols to keep our water sources clean and accessible (Benson, D. (2016, 04).

This lab will help us to have a better understanding of how the interactions of ground and surface water can impact our water sources and cause contamination. It will allow us to look at ways to manage these sources and show labs that process the effect pollutants and show the effect they have on the environment and its distribution. It intends to show what happens when we abuse our precious water system and what we can do to turn that around to protect our water sources.

*For activity one: I hypothesize that the water in the reserves is going to decrease every time water is taken from the well. As I continue to take water away, the process reduces the water that stays.

*For activity two: I hypothesize that the water that is polluted will go into the groundwater supply and stagnate, mainly toward below the surface contaminating the water supply and slowly traveling downward.

*For activity three, I hypothesize that adding the mixture of Kool-Aid and fertilizer will cause all water sources to get polluted. When the water flows in a downward motion, the runoff will cause spilling into the water supply.

Materials and Methods

The materials for the 1st phase of this experiment is



Blue clay



Foam cup

Aquarium tubes

Disposable pipet

10 ml syringe




64ounce plastic container

For the first activity, I molded the blue clay and placed about 1/3 of it in the plastic container that was considered the impermeable holding wall. After doing that, I listed that wall to be the reservoir and the other more significant area the aquifer, which separated the clay petition. I added sand to the aquifer side and then spread the sand wide enough so it could go through the areas, and I cut the cylinder into two pieces, and I placed them into the sand to act as water hole, or thoroughly. I added sand again to the tubes working as wells, and this sand was higher than the first testing. I added gravel that formed a slope that aligned with the top of the wall made of clay. To utilize rain, I punched ten small holes into the foam cup and filled it with water and allowed the water to trickle into the aquifer side behind the wall. I put a straw in one tube and let it go to the bottom so that the water can pull through the straw. I then marked the highest raise of water in the straw and documented my readings. I drained the water out of the well and returned the straw to the well and completed another sampling. This time I measured the height of the water inside the straw again. I took photos from my testing and again repeated the experiment a third time.

For the second activity, I set to use the same model, set it back up again, this time I dumped all the sand from the reservoir clean it out, and put the sand back in again. I used the scissors to cut the aquarium tubes into two pieces and taped them to the bottom of the reservoir. I checked to make sure they don’t touch the bottom of the container. I filled the tank with water to the area slightly above the wall, mixed the Kool-Aid in the solution, and watched it spread through the reservoir. Holding my finger over the outside of the straw to develop suction, I wanted to see if I could create suction. My testing was to see if the tainted water would cause the sanitized water to be polluted. Waiting a few minutes, I did the same test again and again (up to three samples) and photographed each one.

For the third activity, I took the clay out of the container, cleaned the box out, and let it dry. I flattened the earth back out again and molded it into a 6×6 square. I cut the last aquarium tube in half and taped it to the side of the well on the opposite side. The tubes I’m referring to represent wells. From the other side of the container, I created a slope of sand in the box. I added gravel to the top of the slope until the hill formed. I fit the clay around the well and viewed it as the impermeable layer. After adjusting the mold around the well tightly, I spread a layer of sand on the top part of the well. I dug a hole in the small hole in the top of the hill and used the foam cup to transfer water to the top of the hole and filled it to represent a pond. I am using the remaining Kool-Aid to represent the fertilizer on the Plato. While holding the water over the surface, I visualize how the fertilizer would affect the water as the rain came down on it. I did my photoshoot and waited about a half minute to suck the water out of the well using a syringe. I looked at how the water had turn color in the pond, so I took pictures and then proceeded to suck the water out of the well. There was some blockage by the debris, but still, the water was colored, that came out of the well. This I recorded as instructed.


Data Tables: Copy and paste each of your completed data tables here, in order (Weeks One, Two, Four, and Five Labs only).

Observations: Provide your observations for each lab activity here, in order (Week Three Lab only)

Graphs: Paste your graphs here (Week Four Lab only). Include a numbered figure caption below each one, in APA format.

Photographs: Paste your photographs here, in the order they were taken in the lab. Include numbered figure captions below each one, in APA format.

For additional help with the data tables and images, refer to the Ashford Writing Center resource, Tables, Images, and Appendices.


My hypothesis for activity one was satisfactory. When I saw how the water, being removed from the well, was less and less as I continued my testing, showing me that the water decreased as the level of water in the well was taken. I realized how both the groundwater and the surface water was affected by utilizing the methods provided. I accepted this theory.

Activity two, I felt, was a confident belief that my hypothesis was proven. When the water that was contaminated entered the reservoir and accurately showed how it affects the groundwater, I was satisfied that I confirmed my hypothesis. I also believed that the sand and rocks would cause the water to filtrate, and it would come out clean, but it did not. It shows me how the contaminated water found its way through channels and caused the whole system to be polluted.

For activity three, I accepted the hypothesis because then I saw where the fertilizer entered the water, contaminating it. I also realized that the runoff flow determines the direction of the stream of current, meaning some areas may not receive polluted water. When the groundwater and surface water came together, the contamination (Newman, K. (2018), moved from one source to the other in various directions, spreading as much as possible, until the spread of contamination stopped.

I would think that a person much more educated in this form od science would be able to do more advanced and accurate studies of soil erosion, groundwater, and soil contamination and come up with a more comfortable hypothesis. I struggled with this assignment, not realizing that I am an amateur doing this with no supervision. In a lab. The equipment more readily available, I felt I did what I could, but those with a more advanced approach would probably do better. However, I learned the importance of how farmers and why farmers try to plant and grow crops in areas free from runoff, soil contamination, erosion, and fertilization issues. Also, I see how critical it is to sample the soil before planting because of how some corruption can take place underground. Future research paragraph: Based upon what you learned in this lab, what new questions do you have about the topic of this lab? In a few sentences, how might you design a new lab activity to answer those questions? Even in areas where man has done damage to the environment, we find that we are all contributors to how and why contamination exists. I am now appreciating the water testing samples that are sent to my neighborhood at various times, informing me to deposit water from my faucet into small vial containers for testing the water. Before, I would throw these samples away. Now I will follow the instructions and send them back.

  • I had a struggle with all three lab tests. It was uncomfortable setting up the models, not knowing if you had documented the accurate information (SLOAN, E. (2018), but hoping the hypothesis would be a positive one. I suggested to using videos to eliminate so much picture downloading. My biggest issue is transferring pictures from e-mail to the lab template. It was challenging and a bit messy. I did not like the way the lab kit was set up. If actual samples were already proposed to us, like the measure of sands, cutting of tubes, and marked areas for stopping at that point, and were accomplish before shipping, it would eliminate a lot of the mess to clean up. What have I learned paragraph: What important new things have you learned from this lab? Use at least one credible outside source (not the lab manual or textbook) to answer this question. Cite the source using APA format. Answers should be 5-7 original, substantive sentences in length.


Benson, D. (2016, 04). How safe is your water? Natural Solutions, 6. Retrieved from for.

Newman, K. (2018). What’s in the Water? U.S. News – The Report, C14. Retrieved from

SLOAN, E. (2018). Does It Work? Water-Testing Kits. Prevention70(6), 30. Retrieved from

Place an Order

Plagiarism Free!

Scroll to Top