The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

PSY331: Psychology of Learning

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

An important component to maximized knowledge manifest in the operative nature of our memory. Memory development is a factor highly considered in the role of learning, which serves as the core of understanding that this development is the bigger picture to elements such as information processing, schema development, and cognitive mapping (Rosser-Majors, 2017). The advancement in memory maturation is centered around pivotal aspects such as working memory; its effective transition to long- term memory, and the ability to elevate the schemata with new information. A healthy “memory bank” can be elevated by different types of memory such as: Episodic, Semantic, and Autobiographical memories that has fundamental functions throughout development as life events occur. However, premature or stagnate memory development can hinder our ability to build upon the knowledge that is maintain or even cause diminishment to our knowledge. Uncovering the cognitive theories that showcase the foundation of development and its many affects to human sustain cognitively, will prove the importance of actively securing and increasing memory development.

Memory Development

Memory Development is a part of cognitive evolvement that occur within infancy progressing throughout adolescence and reaching its peak in adulthood. Memory development is comprised of many elements starting with working memory, which is a cognitive system that stores limited information, also referred to as short term memory. While the working memory is limited in scope of how and how long information is maintained; it provides a foundation for further complexities to take place such as language and learning (Rosser-Major, 2017). Rosser-Majors (2017) state, “Working memory is essential because it regulates our attentiveness to tasks and how we manage distractions, apply strategies to our learning experiences, and form long-term

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

memories” (sec.3, para. 2). Psychologist Sweller and Baddeley’s theories suggest the implication of visual and auditory memory to be utilized as dual-processing application can expand the limitation od working memory (Rosser-Majors, 2017). With the proper filtering mechanism that is applied with the use of the central executive nerves, necessary information is transferred into the long- term memory. Memory development involves a variation of memory types (Episodic, Semantic, and Autobiographical), which can evolve if nurtured properly or can decrease resulting in failed memory capacity. If the memory is effectively and efficiently processed then adaptable new information can take place, altering once schemata and promoting active learning (Rosser- Majors, 2017).

Effective Processing

Ultimately, the component of memory becomes solidified by what has been effectively processed and transferred to the long-term memory. The space occupied for information is limited within working memory, so the transfer is important to obtain and increase the ability to recall vital information and elevate. Working memory is responsible for viable information and the encoding of language that cannot be done with long-term memory. In fact, Norris (2017), “the complete phonological representation of new words must be in the short-term store in order to be encoded into the Long-term memory” (pg. 993, para., 3).

Effectively processing working memory to long-term memory also ensures the disruption from competing stimuli as the working memory is rapidly taking in information that is competing for space but can be interrupted by intrinsic and extraneous loads. Furthermore, studies show that the aging process is a natural part of human sustain, which the focal point of

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

the working memory being the central component of cognitive impairment to be seen in older adults. Also, the diminishment of working memory is among the first symptoms showcased in neuropsychological diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (Zuber, Ihle, Loaiza, Schnitzspahn, Stahl, Philips, & Kliegel, 2018). This further makes the importance of effective processing and transfer of working memory to long-term memory vital. Zuber, Ihle, Loaiza, Schnitzspahn, Stahl, Philips, & Kliegel (2018) state, “ This time-dependent process of stabilization, whereby our experiences achieve a permanent record in our memory, is referred to as “consolidation. “The more information that is effectively processed and transfer the likelier the increase of permanent information one has. Thus, sustain within the long-term memory in the form of a structure called schemata (Rosser-Majors, 2017). Working memory generates new sources of information; if properly applied can be helpful in academic and professional avenues from childhood throughout adulthood.

To increase effective processing and transfer of information from working memory to long-term memory there are strategies that can support this task efficiently such as minimizing the working memory load by reducing the memory amount to be stored, also by ensuring that what is stored has meaning and importance, which account for the transferal of information that has relevance and can be enhanced. Maintaining effective cognitive loads known as Germane loads, which occupy space for abstractions and elaborations that are promoted by the instructional presentation, represent as a contributing factor to learning (Rosser- Majors, 2017). Furthermore, the utilization of memory aids such as: number lines, Unifix blocks and other counting devices, cards, dictaphones, personalized dictionaries with useful spellings, teacher notes on the class white board, and wall charts (Rosser-Majors, 2017).

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

Working memory is gradual from childhood to teenage years and at point in adulthood reaches double the capacity of a four year, it is imperative that strategies like such are implemented to effectively processing information enduringly (Rosse-Majors, 2017). The strategies introduced in school age children can mark the start of progressive integration of a variation of information that can be beneficial in cognitive growth. Studies show an effective strategy that incorporates all strategies named above in one enforcement, encouraged to be employed by teachers. Explicit and Systematic instructions are said manifest in the thriving nature of children academically (Smith, Sáez &, Doabler, 2018). The repetition of learning materials taught at a slower pace to ensure long-term memory accessibility is noted, along with refreshment of prior information learned increase the schemata of the child. These strategies can promote and ensure the interim of long-term memory.

Attention and Perception

As working and long- term memory proves its importance to learning and maintaining information, attention and perception has a vital role as well. Rosser-Majors states, “When it comes to memory and learning, attention and perception are key variables that can work both in our favor and against us. Attention is a cognitive process the basis of recognizing and evaluating information within one’s environment and filtering information that is of no relevance (Rosser-Majors, 2017). Properly encoding information can be affected by the amount of attention one devotes to their surroundings, in which an overload of information makes it difficult to acquire working memory at its fullest potential. It is impossible to pay attention to every detail, which leaves room for vital information to be missed within the working memory and transferred to

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

long-term memory is one attempts to attend to too much information and distractions (Rosser-Major, 2017).

Perception is a one’s ability to interpret and understand information, in which one’s understanding of information can affect encoding and how it aligns with new knowledge to knowledge already obtained (Rosser-Majors, 2017). The success of your schema is based on the interplay of attention and perception, because one will pay attention to and encode information that is relatable to similar experiences they’ve had, along with the interpretation of the schema that will provoke increase interest in receiving new information or disregarding information.

Potential Strategies

The cognitive load theory posed by by Sweller, van Merriënboer, and Paas unequivocally demonstrates the importance to attention and perception as it suggests one’s ability to learn efficiently is met with the natural processing of information that humans partake in (Rosser-Majors, 2017). Rosser-Majors (2017) states, “Evaluating working memory, attention, and perception through this lens can help you better understand the importance of applying learning strategies to achieve successful knowledge acquisition” (sec., 3.3, para., 1). This model proposes an elevation in one’s schemata when increased learning takes place; evolving prior experiences with new information.

Types of Knowledge

Harris, K. R., & Graham, S. (1994). Constructivism: Principles, paradigms, and integration. The Journal of Special Education, 28(3), 233–247.

As indicated above, learning involves a number of variables, like previously discussed effective memory processing, schemata development, and recognition and interpretation (Attention & Perception. However, types of memories its attributes can affect learning as well. (Rosser-

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

Majors, 2017). There are declarative and explicit memories that are generalized to illustrate the world knowledge that one has accumulated throughout referred to as Semantic memories that is support by other memory types: Episodic and Autobiographical memory. Events that happen throughout one’s life time are called Episodic memories, which can have a positive of negative impact. Event specific memories that can be immersed in rich sensory details can sustain lastingly with the memory (Karylowski & Mrozinski, 2017). There are also recollections of memories that constitute as a standard for how one views themselves called Autographical memories. Rosser-Majors (2017) states, “Autobiographical memories are stored with long-term memories but are housed within separate domains, depending on the core component that the memory captures” (sec., 3.4, para., 2).

Emotional memories are housed by this type of memory due to past personal experience that can harbor happiness, grief, anger, love, shame, and sadness as the mental encompasses of feeling. Memories like such can take effect by consuming the working memory, causing distraction or hindering to new information’s ability to encode if memories like such or negative. In the event that memories are positive, this could promote healthy and effective processing, also increase cognitive processes to expand. Karylowski & Mrozinski (2017) state, “The cognitive representations of self- emerging as a common threat embodied in our autobiographical memories, regardless of their situation-specificity, are both multi-faceted and dynamic” pp., 1, para. 4). They become activated – or constructed – depending on chronic accessibility and situational cues (Kihlstrom et al., 2003; Conway, 2005; McConnell, 2011; Skowronski, 2012; McConnell et al., 2013).

The Knowledge Acquisition and Memory Development paper

False Memory Development

Effective learning and memory retainment can be generated by a multitude of factors, however, as intrinsic and extraneous loads, along with negative components associated with memory types can alter progression, so can false memories. The experiencing of memories that maintain fact mixed with aspects that are false or recall that is completely inaccurate can be contributed by misinformation of misattributions contributed by others (Rosser-Majors, 2017). Rosser-Majors (2017) states, “Psychologist Julie Shaw has suggested that errors are often present in memories” (sec.,3.5, para., 2). She contributed to perception being a subjective culprit that has the ability to alter actual events as the have happened to us, and illustrate how one’s internal processing can project inaccurate memories.

The commonality of false memory expanding across human processing is normal. In fact, Rosser-Majors (2017) state, “It’s even suggested that “memory distortions are basic and widespread in humans, and it may be unlikely that anyone is immune” (Patihis et al., 2013, p. 1)” (sec., 3.5, para., 6). False memory is not a trait, in which all humans are prone to false memories (Patihis, 2018). False memories can negatively affect how one process information and hinder the learning experiences, because the inability to receive fact-based information due to perception can take place halting the process.


In conclusion, learning is essential to the health of the working and long-term memory, met with the ability to minimize distractions and acquire the proper mental load beneficial to encoding as much complexed information from the working memory to the long-term memory as possible. Rosser-Majors states, “if we do not effectively process what our senses are introducing, we will have decreased or inaccurate memory development” (sec., 3.5, para., 12). In uncovering cognitive-ideologies that can facilitate optimal learning, one can utilize noted strategies and tips towards developing one’s schemata and increase upon perpetual information that can sustain us lastingly.


Karylowski, J. J., & Mrozinski, B. (2017). Time frame affects vantage point in episodic and semantic autobiographical memory: Evidence from response latencies. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. Retrieved from

Norris, D. (2017). Short-term memory and long-term memory are still different. Psychological Bulletin, 143(9), 992–1009.

Patihis, L. (2018). Why there is no false memory trait and why everyone is susceptible to memory distortions: The dual encoding interference hypothesis (Commentary on Bernstein, Scoboria, Desjarlais, & Soucie, 2018). Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice, 5(2), 180–184.

Rosser-Majors, M. L. (2017). Theories of learning: An exploration. Retrieved from

Smith, J. L. M., Sáez, L., & Doabler, C. T. (2018). Using Explicit and Systematic Instruction to Support Working Memory. Teaching Exceptional Children, 50(4), 250–257.

Zuber, S., Ihle, A., Loaiza, V. M., Schnitzspahn, K. M., Stahl, C., Phillips, L. H., … Kliegel, M. (2018). Explaining age differences in working memory: The role of updating, inhibition, and shifting. Psychology & Neuroscience.