Environmental and occupational exposure

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According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention the “occupational safety and health Act of 1970” underline the necessities for values in order to guard the safety and the health of American workers. (CDC, 1993). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and health has improved plans for distributing information that will assist employers to guard the labors from the workstation hazards which will satisfy their needs. The plan involved the development of (NIOSH) risk assessments; this plan is to help the development and the risk record activities of the foundation. Special (NIOSH) hazards records are disseminated to the occupational health community at businesses, unions, trade associations, and members of the academic and scientific communities. Mortalities have happened to workers in the manufacture of rubber from much type of cancers, such as stomach, lung, bladder, hematopoietic etc. The workers might be endangered in unhealthy respiratory effects, reproductive effects, injuries, and recurring trauma disorders. It is very important that health effects will not be accredited to only a particular chemical, usually workstation exposures change deeply and chemical formulations also modify often. Epidemiologic and industrial cleanliness studies are desired to evaluate the danger of the illness and other health effects from rubber products workers. (CDC, 1993).

Rubber products such as vehicles tires, machine moldings, prophylactics, rubber gloves and rubber bands are a significant segment of current lifetime. Nevertheless, manufacture of these substances includes exposing heterogeneous combinations of numerous of chemicals for example pressure, heat, and catalytic engagement procedures. Therefore, the work setting may be infected with gases, fumes, vapors, dusts, and chemical byproducts (e.g., Nnitrosamines). The labors can be displayed to the hazards through skin absorption during rubber processing and inhalation and product manufacturing. Moreover, physical hazards may occur such as motion, noise, and lifting may be existed. The health technologists have been defied to describe the exposures and work environments when examine the health of rubber products with labors. “Although the products and byproducts of tire and non-tire rubber manufacturing contain hundreds of chemicals, only a small proportion of them are covered by applicable Federal occupational health standards”. (U.S. Department of Commerce 1991).

In history, cancer is the chronic disease regularly reported in the studies of” rubber products workers”. During the year 1940s, British rubber labors were informed to be at enlarged danger of bladder cancer from being in contact to an antioxidant that contained 1-naphthylamine (alpha-naphthylamine) and 2-naphthylamine (beta-naphthylamine). ( Hosker, 1954). According to Mancuso et Al in the U.S. an early investigations were conducted to reveal extra mortalities between a cohort of Ohio rubber products workers who were employed in 1938 and 1939 years. The researchers endorsed further reports of U.S. rubber workers. In 1970, the United Rubber, and Plastic Workers of America (URW) teamed with other major American rubber organizations to develop a combined health program. ( Mancuso, 1968). An agreement was negotiated with the Universities of Public Health at Harvard University and the University of North Carolina to lead epidemiologic reviews of rubber workers which highlighted cancer occurrence and death. (IARC, 1982). “Currently, the risks for cancer and other chronic diseases in rubber products workers are unknown because of the lack of substantial epidemiologic and industrial hygiene research in the past decade”. (IARC, 1982)

I am really interested in the environmental or occupational public health problem and the population studies I selected, because studies are demanded in order to evaluate all the risks of the products especially the rubber products which are extremely essential of modern life. Numbers of workers are exposed to different type cancers as well as respiratory effect and other type of illness from the past and present occupational exposures. Also it is important to specify analyses of workers damages and also to help identify areas of exposures of the workers in order to prevent illnesses. For the future, the outcomes of the reviews must be monitored and progressed for the rubber products. When I think about it, cancer is the leading killer of Americans and the primary cause of death globally.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 1993. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/93-106/

IARC (1982). IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans: the rubber industry. Vol. 28. Lyon, France: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Mancuso TF, Ciocco A, ElAttar AA [1968]. An epidemiological approach to the rubber industry. J Occup Med 10(5):213–232.

U.S. Department of Commerce (1991). 1989 Annual survey of manufactures: statistics for industry groups and industries, M89(AS–1). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, pp. 1–18, 1–19.

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