Ethics Milestone 2

Stefan is from Spain and is visiting Denmark. He finds himself very popular among native Danes because they like his casual and relaxed nature. When Stefan is invited to a local family’s home for dinner, he arrives late and is surprised that his hosts have seemingly taken offense.

“This is how we do it in Spain,” he explained with a smile. “Dinner times are approximate and we arrive when we can.”

“That is not how we do it in Denmark,” replied his host, rather stiffly.

According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Stefan or his host?

Stefan, because his casual nature is why the Danes like him.

Stefan, because by Spanish standards, he had arrived early.

The host, because in Denmark, everyone is expected to arrive on time.

The host, because society functions best when individuals are punctual.


Applying Conventionalism


Why is egoism considered a relativist theory of ethics?

Because it maintains that humans are not inherently selfish.

Because right and wrong are subject to the individual agent.

Because it maintains that there are universal truths most people agree on.

Because it maintains that what is good applies to everyone equally.




Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism?

Egoism does not account for the agent’s pain.

Egoism is focused on positive effects for the agent.

Egoism does not allow for inherent human dignity.

Egoism promotes the common good by putting individuals first.


Problems with Egoism


Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist?

“Conventionalists profess belief in objective morality.”

“Conventionalism is rooted in the idea that all cultures strive toward the same good.”

“Conventionalism is a loose term that applies to many individual theories.”

“Conventionalism provides a framework for comparing diverse cultures.”




Which of the following scenarios would be obligatory for an egoist?

Michelle lets her husband decide what to eat since she’s fine either way.

Madison brings a wallet she found on the ground to the police station rather than keeping it for herself.

Malachi sees an opportunity to cheat and get ahead at work, so he takes it.

Rather than take his dream vacation, Milo serves as a foster parent so children can have a stable home.


Commitments of Egoism


Which of the following represents a challenge to divine command theory?

Divine command theory does not offer a firm basis for morality.

Divine command theory doesn’t give a compelling reason for being good.

Divine command theory is too relative.

Divine command theory relies on sacred texts that are silent on some issues.


Refutations of Divine Command Theory


Which of the following statements in support of divine command theory is true?

The ultimate basis for divine command theory ethics can be found in the empirical world.

Divine command theory does not provide a clear basis for ethics.

Divine command theory can be a source of comfort.

Divine command theory cannot provide clear motivations for being moral.


Support for Divine Command Theory


Most people in Dave’s culture volunteer an hour every other week at a local food shelf. In addition to this, Dave also helps coordinate volunteers and fills in for people who can’t make their hour.

What would a conventionalist call Dave’s actions?






Commitments of Conventionalism


Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true?

Divine command theory is just another name for religion.

Divine command theory states that if God says nothing about an action, that action is forbidden.

Divine command theory states that God’s commands are universal ethical truths.

Divine command theory states that the intention justifies the action.


Divine Command Theory


After moving to a new city, Rachel continues to support her hometown’s baseball team. A friend tells her she has to support her new city’s team, but Rachel points out that God hasn’t said anything on the matter.

In Rachel’s view, her action is __________ according to divine command theory.






Commitments of Divine Command Theory


According to egoism, what might an egoist consider when faced with the issue of world hunger?

We all have an obligation to ensure all people have access to food.

We are obligated to do a better job distributing food.

Governments of poor nations are obligated to feed their citizens.

Individuals are obligated to feed themselves.


Applying Egoism


Which of the following statements supports egoism?

A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals.

A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone.

The rule of law motivates actions for individuals.

Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others.


Support for Egoism


Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument?

Some cultures are descended from common ancestors.

Even if two cultures disagree, there can still be a right answer.

No two cultures have the same ethical framework.

Morality is objective, so there are universal ethical truths.


Problems with Conventionalism


Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism?

Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, “Greed is good.”

Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes.

Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups.

Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, “You do you.”


Support for Conventionalism


Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory?

God says to love him above all else, a fact of which my mother often reminds me.

God says to support the poor, so there are a lot of religious charities.

God forbids wearing mixed fibers, but most people aren’t concerned with what their clothes are made of.

God commands people to be generous, so I give 10% of my paycheck to an organization that helps at-risk youth in my community.


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